Newsletter – July 2017

Enews – July 2017

In this month’s eNews we report on the Queen’s speech and the legislative process. We also include articles on recommendations to simplify corporation tax, the extended deadline for returns for employment related securities, the introduction of Land Transaction Tax in Wales and the latest fines and guidance issued by the Information Commissioner’s Office following cyber attacks. With HMRC’s latest Employer Bulletin and advice on holiday pay and entitlement there is lots to consider.

Queen’s Speech and proposed legislation

The Queen delivered the 2017 Queen’s Speech on 21 June which set out the government’s agenda for the coming parliamentary session. The speech outlined the government’s proposed policies and legislation.

This Queen’s speech announced that the government will focus on:

  • delivering a Brexit deal that works for all parts of the United Kingdom and
  • building a stronger, fairer country by strengthening our economy, tackling injustice and promoting opportunity and aspiration.

The supporting documentation confirms 27 Bills and draft Bills which are expected to be in the legislative programme, which will deliver on these themes. Details of the Bills that the government propose to introduce are available via the links at the end of this article.

The Speech and supporting documentation make little reference to delayed tax measures which were put on hold prior to the Election or the progress of the legislation on Making Tax Digital for Business. The reference to tax legislation states:

‘The programme will also include three Finance Bills to implement budget decisions. Summer Finance Bill 2017 will include a range of tax measures including those to tackle avoidance. The programme will also include a technical Bill to ratify several minor EU agreements and further Bills, which will be announced in due course, to effect the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. The government will also be taking forward a range of other measures which may not require primary legislation.’

We will update you on developments.

Internet links: GOV.UK summary what it means Speech GOV.UK background notes

Simplifying corporation tax

The Office for Tax Simplification has published their recommendations on simplifying the corporation tax computation.

This report sets out some significant steps towards creating a 21st-century corporation tax system in the UK, responding to calls from businesses of all sizes to make the calculation of corporation tax simpler, with fewer changes and more time to plan. The report looks at four broad themes:

  • simpler tax for smaller companies
  • aligning the tax rules more closely with accounting rules where appropriate
  • simplifying tax relief for capital investment
  • a range of further issues affecting the largest companies.

We will keep you informed of developments in this area.

Internet link: GOV.UK review CT

Employment Related Securities return deadline

HMRC are advising that there have been technical issues with their Employment Related Securities (ERS) annual returns online service. Employers have to complete returns for any schemes that have been registered on the ERS online service, such as Enterprise Management Incentives (EMI), a non-tax advantaged scheme or award, Company Share Option Plan, Save As You Earn Scheme and Share Incentive Plan

HMRC apologise for the difficulties which had prevented some returns from being submitted online. They have confirmed that the service is now working and allowing users to upload the necessary templates and files as part of the return process.

The deadline for filing annual returns is generally 6 July following the end of the tax year, so for the tax year 2016/17 it would usually be 6 July 2017. However, in view of the recent problems HMRC have extended the deadline to 24 August 2017 for the tax year 2016/17.

Penalties for late returns

Due to the change in deadline this year HMRC are advising that:

‘Penalties are charged if you file your return late. If your return isn’t filed by the extended deadline of 24 August 2017 the first late filing penalty of £100 will be issued on 25 August 2017.

Additional automatic penalties of £300 will be charged if the return is still outstanding 3 months after the original deadline of 6 July, and a further £300 if it’s still outstanding 6 months after that date. If a return is still outstanding 9 months after the 6 July, daily penalties of £10 a day may be charged.’

If you would like any help or guidance on share incentives or how these should be reported to HMRC please contact us.

Internet link: GOV.UK bulletin

Land Transaction Tax

From April 2018, Land Transaction Tax (LTT) will replace Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) in Wales. Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) already applies in Scotland.

Like SDLT (and LBTT), LTT will generally be payable on the purchase or lease of a building or land. The new tax may therefore be relevant to house buyers and sellers and businesses including builders, property developers and agents involved in the transaction process (such as solicitors and conveyancers).

Rates of the new tax

The proposed tax rates and bands will be announced by October 2017.

Additional residential properties

Higher rates of SDLT and LBTT apply to purchases of additional residential properties, including second homes. The National Assembly for Wales has confirmed these increased rates will continue to apply in Wales under LTT.

More details can be found at National Assembly for Wales.

Internet link: gov.wales/land-transaction-tax

Holiday entitlement

Now is the time of year when many of us turn our thoughts to holidays and it is important to get holiday entitlement and holiday pay right.

The June 2017 acas newsletter includes links to useful guidance on calculating holiday and holiday pay entitlements as well as guidance on hot weather working.

The GOV.UK website includes a useful calculator.

If you would like help with payroll matters please contact us.

Internet links: GOV.UK calculator acas newsletter

Latest guidance for employers

HMRC have issued the latest version of the Employer Bulletin. This edition has articles on a number of issues including:

  • P11D and P11D(b) filing and payment deadlines
  • Paying the right amount of tax through PAYE
  • Construction industry scheme repayment claims for limited companies
  • The Apprenticeship Levy and funding of apprenticeship training
  • Tax-free childcare rollout including guidance on dealing with employee opt outs of current childcare voucher schemes
  • Student Loan employer prompts where deductions have not been made
  • GCSEs in England – new grading system explained for employers.

If you have any queries on payroll matters please contact us.

Internet link: GOV.UK Employer bulletin

ICO warning as business fined £60,000 following cyber attack

The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) is warning SMEs to take care or face a fine. The warning comes after a company which suffered a cyber attack was fined £60,000.

The investigation by the ICO found Boomerang Video Ltd based in Berkshire failed to take basic steps to stop its website being attacked.

Sally Anne Poole, ICO enforcement manager, said:

Regardless of your size, if you are a business that handles personal information then data protection laws apply to you.’

‘If a company is subject to a cyber attack and we find they haven’t taken steps to protect people’s personal information in line with the law, they could face a fine from the ICO. And under the new General Data Protection Legislation (GDPR) coming into force next year, those fines could be a lot higher.’

‘Boomerang Video failed to take basic steps to protect its customers’ information from cyber attackers. Had it done so, it could have prevented this attack and protected the personal details of more than 26,000 of its customers.’

Further details of the case can be found using the links below together with guidance on data protection issues including guidance on the new General Data Protection Regulations which come into effect on 25 May 2018.

Internet links: ICO news ICO report Boomerang data protection reform updated toolkit for SMEs

Autumn Statement 2016

Autumn Statement 2016

On Wednesday 23 November the Chancellor Philip Hammond presented his first, and last, Autumn Statement along with the Spending Review.

His speech and the supporting documentation set out both tax and economic measures.

Our summary concentrates on the tax measures which include:

  • the government reaffirming the objectives to raise the personal allowance to £12,500 and the higher rate threshold to £50,000 by the end of this Parliament
  • reduction of the Money Purchase Annual Allowance
  • review of ways to build on research and development tax relief
  • tax and National Insurance advantages of salary sacrifice schemes to be removed
  • anti-avoidance measures for the VAT Flat Rate Scheme
  • autumn Budgets commencing in autumn 2017.

In addition the Chancellor announced the following pay and welfare measures:

  • National Living Wage to rise from £7.20 an hour to £7.50 from April 2017
  • Universal Credit taper rate to be cut from 65% to 63% from April 2017.

In the March Budget the government announced various proposals, many of which have been subject to consultation with interested parties. Some of these proposals are summarised here. Draft legislation relating to many of these areas will be published on IPT

5 December and some of the details may change as a result.

Our summary also provides a reminder of other key tax developments which are to take place from April 2017.

Personal Tax

The personal allowance

The personal allowance is currently £11,000. Legislation has already been enacted to increase the allowance to £11,500 for 2017/18.

Not everyone has the benefit of the full personal allowance. There is a reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000, which is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for 2016/17 there is no personal allowance where adjusted net income exceeds £122,000. For 2017/18 there will be no personal allowance available where adjustedk net income exceeds £123,000.

Tax bands and rates

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is £32,000 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies is £43,000 for those who are entitled to the full personal allowance.

Legislation has already been enacted to increase the basic rate band to £33,500 for 2017/18. The higher rate threshold will therefore rise to £45,000 in 2017/18 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% remains payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Long term commitments to raise the personal allowance and higher rate threshold

The Chancellor has reaffirmed the government’s objectives to raise the personal allowance to £12,500 and the higher rate threshold to £50,000 by the end of this Parliament. He also announced that once the personal allowance reaches £12,500, it will then rise in line with CPI as the higher rate threshold does, rather than in line with the National Minimum Wage.

Tax bands and rates – dividends

Dividends received by an individual are subject to special tax rates. The first £5,000 of dividends are charged to tax at 0% (the Dividend Allowance). Dividends received above the allowance are taxed at the following rates:

  • 5% for basic rate taxpayers
  • 5% for higher rate taxpayers
  • 1% for additional rate taxpayers.

 

Dividends within the allowance still count towards an individual’s basic or higher rate band and so may affect the rate of tax paid on dividends above the £5,000 allowance.

To determine which tax band dividends fall into, dividends are treated as the last type of income to be taxed.

Comment

Many individuals do not have £5,000 of dividend income and so their dividend income is tax free irrespective of the tax rates payable on other income.

Individuals who regard themselves as basic rate taxpayers need to appreciate that all dividends received still form part of the total income of an individual. If dividends above £5,000 are received, the first £5,000 will use up some or all of the basic rate band available. The element of dividends above £5,000 which are taxable may well therefore make the individual a higher rate taxpayer with the dividends being taxed at 32.5%.

Tax on savings income

Savings income is income such as bank and building society interest. Some individuals qualify for a 0% starting rate of tax on savings income up to £5,000. However, the rate is not available if taxable non-savings income (broadly earnings, pensions, trading profits and property income) exceeds the starting rate limit.

In addition, from 2016/17 the Savings Allowance (SA) applies to savings income. Income within the SA is taxed at 0% (the ‘savings nil rate’). However, the available SA in a tax year will depend on the individual’s marginal rate of income tax. Individuals taxed at up to the basic rate of tax will have an SA of £1,000. For higher rate taxpayers, the SA is £500 whilst no SA is due to additional rate taxpayers.

Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)

The overall ISA savings limit is £15,240 for 2016/17 but will jump to £20,000 in 2017/18.

Lifetime ISA

A new Lifetime ISA will be available from April 2017 for adults under the age of 40. Individuals will be able to contribute up to £4,000 per year and receive a 25% bonus from the government. Funds, including the government bonus, can be used to buy a first home at any time from 12 months after opening the account, and can be withdrawn from age 60 completely tax-free.

Comment

The increase in the overall ISA limit to £20,000 for 2017/18 is partly due to the introduction of the Lifetime ISA. There will therefore be four types of ISAs for many adults from April 2017 – cash ISAs, stocks and shares ISAs, innovative ISAs (allowing investment into peer to peer loans) and the Lifetime ISA. Money can be placed into one of each kind of ISA each tax year.

 Pensions

Money Purchase Annual Allowance

The Money Purchase Annual Allowance will be reduced from £10,000 to £4,000 from April 2017.

Comment

The ‘annual allowance’ sets the maximum amount of tax efficient pension contributions. The normal annual allowance is £40,000. The Money Purchase Annual Allowance was introduced in 2015, to restrict the annual allowance to £10,000 when an individual over 55 has taken income from a pension scheme. The government will consult on the detail of the further restriction now announced.

Foreign pensions

The tax treatment of foreign pensions will be more closely aligned with the UK’s domestic pension tax regime by bringing foreign pensions and lump sums fully into tax for UK residents, to the same extent as domestic ones.

Universal Credit

Universal Credit is the new state benefit designed to support those on low income or out of work.

An individual’s entitlement to the benefit is made up of a number of elements to reflect their personal circumstances. Their entitlement is tapered at a rate of 65% where claimants earn above the work allowances. The current taper rate for those who claim Universal Credit means their credit will be withdrawn at a rate of 65 pence for every extra £1 earned.

From April 2017, the taper rate that applies to Universal Credit will be reduced from 65% to 63%.

Comment

The Chancellor stated this will let individuals keep more of what they earn and strengthen the incentive for individuals to progress in work. The government estimates that three million households will benefit from this change.

Business Tax

Corporation tax rates

Corporation tax rates have already been enacted for periods up to 31 March 2021.

The main rate of corporation tax is currently 20%. The rate will then be reduced as follows:

  • 19% for the Financial Years beginning on 1 April 2017, 1 April 2018 and 1 April 2019
  • 17% for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2020.

Corporate tax loss relief

Currently, a company is restricted in the type of profit which can be relieved by a loss if the loss is brought forward from an earlier accounting period. For example, a trading loss carried forward can only relieve future profits from the same trade. Changes are proposed which will mean that losses arising on or after 1 April 2017, when carried forward, will be useable against profits from other income streams or other companies within a group. This will apply to most types of losses but not to capital losses.

However, from 1 April 2017, large companies will only be able to use losses carried forward against up to 50% of their profits above £5 million. For groups, the £5 million allowance will apply to the group.

Comment

The removal of the restrictions on the use of carried forward losses is very welcome. The existing rules can result in losses not being used, particularly where a company closes down a loss making trade. Over 99% of companies will be unaffected by the restrictions imposed on large company losses above £5 million.

Corporate interest expense deductibility

Rules will be introduced which limit the tax deductions that large groups can claim for their UK interest expenses from April 2017. These rules will limit deductions where a group has net interest expenses of more than £2 million, net interest expenses exceed 30% of UK taxable earnings and the group’s net interest to earnings ratio in the UK exceeds that of the worldwide group.

Corporation tax on non-resident companies’ UK income

The government is considering bringing all non-resident companies receiving taxable income from the UK into the corporation tax regime.

Comment

The government wants to ensure that all companies are subject to the rules which apply generally for the purposes of corporation tax, including the limitation of corporate interest expense deductibility and loss relief rules.

Research and development

The Chancellor highlighted that research and development is a key driver for economic growth and has committed to an extra £2 billion a year of additional funding by 2020/21. There are two types of tax reliefs for eligible expenditure. Under one of these, qualifying companies can claim a taxable credit of 11% in relation to eligible research and development expenditure. This is known as an ‘above the line’ tax credit. The government will review ways to build on this relief.

Class 2 NICs

Class 2 NICs will be abolished from April 2018, and following this, self-employed contributory benefit entitlement will be accessed through Class 3 and Class 4 NICs. Self-employed people with profits below the Small Profits Limit (£5,965 for 2016/17) will be able to access Contributory Employment and Support Allowance through Class 3 NICs.

Substantial shareholding exemption

Where qualifying conditions are met, the disposal of a substantial shareholding in a company by a UK company is exempt from tax. From April 2017, the government intends to simplify the rules of this relief, remove the investing requirement and provide a more comprehensive exemption for companies owned by qualifying institutional investors.

Comment

The substantial shareholding exemption allows some groups of companies to restructure and make disposals of shareholdings without incurring a tax charge. Currently the qualifying conditions are complicated and restricted to trading groups, so the proposed changes may allow more groups to access this valuable relief.

Museums and galleries tax relief

At Budget 2016, the government announced the introduction of a tax relief for museums and galleries that would be available for temporary and touring exhibition costs.

The government has decided to broaden the scope to include permanent exhibitions. The relief will take effect from April 2017. The rates of relief will be set at 25% for touring exhibitions and 20% for non-touring exhibitions and the relief will be capped at £500,000 of qualifying expenditure per exhibition.

Social Investment Tax Relief (SITR)

From 6 April 2017, the amount of investment that social enterprises aged up to seven years old can raise through SITR will increase to £1.5 million. Investment in nursing homes and residential care homes will be excluded initially, however the government intends to introduce an accreditation system to allow such investment to qualify for SITR in the future. The limit on full-time equivalent employees for a qualifying social enterprise will be reduced from 500 to 250.

Comment

Individuals investing in a qualifying social enterprises can deduct 30% of the cost of their investment from their income tax liability, either for the tax year in which the investment is made or the previous tax year. The investment must be held for a minimum period of three years for the relief to be retained. In addition there is no capital gains tax on a disposal of the investment.

Disguised remuneration schemes

Recent tax changes have tackled the use of disguised remuneration schemes by employers and employees. Now the government will extend the scope of these changes to tackle the use of disguised remuneration avoidance schemes by the self-employed.

Tackling the hidden economy

Consideration will be made by the government to introduce tax registration as a condition of access to some essential business services or licences.

First year allowances on electric charge-points

Expenditure incurred on or after 23 November 2016 on electric charge-point equipment for electric cars will qualify for a 100% first year allowance. This relief will expire on 31 March 2019 for corporation tax and 5 April 2019 for income tax.

Northern Ireland corporation tax rate

Devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Assembly allows the Assembly to set a Northern Ireland rate of corporation tax to apply to certain trading income. The Northern Ireland Executive has committed to setting a rate of 12.5% in April 2018. The government will amend the Northern Ireland corporation tax regime in Finance Bill 2017 to give all small and medium sized enterprises trading in Northern Ireland the potential to benefit. Commencement of the devolved power is subject to the Northern Ireland Executive demonstrating its finances are on a sustainable footing.

 Venture capital schemes

The government has proposed to make further changes to tax-advantaged venture capital schemes including the Enterprise Investment Scheme, the Seed Investment Scheme and Venture Capital Trusts to clarify some rules and provide some additional flexibility and certainty.

Employment Issues

Off-payroll working in the public sector

From April 2017, where workers are engaged through their own limited company to work for a public sector body, responsibility to apply the intermediaries rules (commonly known as the IR35 rules) will fall to the public sector body, agency or other third party paying the worker’s company. The public sector body, agency or other third party will be liable to pay any associated income tax and National Insurance.

Where individuals are working through their own limited company in the private sector, the existing rules will continue to apply.

To help the public sector body, agency or other third party to determine whether the intermediaries rules apply, HMRC will provide a new interactive online tool. The aim is to support the decision making process, not only for public sector employers, but also for individuals working through their own limited company in the private sector.

Apprenticeship levy and apprenticeship funding

Larger employers will be liable to pay the apprenticeship levy from April 2017. The levy is set at a rate of 0.5% of an employer’s pay bill, which is broadly total employee earnings excluding benefits in kind, and will be paid along with other PAYE deductions. Each employer receives an annual allowance of £15,000 to offset against their levy payment. This means that the levy will only be paid on any pay bill in excess of £3 million in a year.

Draft apprenticeship levy regulations make it clear that only where an employer has a levy liability, or expects to have a levy liability during the tax year, will they need to engage with reporting the apprenticeship levy to HMRC.

The levy will be used to provide funding for apprenticeships and there will be changes to the funding for apprenticeship training for all employers as a consequence. Each country in the UK has its own apprenticeship authority and each will be making changes to their scheme.

Alignment of income tax and National Insurance contributions (NICs)

Currently, liabilities to pay income tax and NICs are calculated in different ways for employees. Employers are also required to pay NICs on most of the wages and salaries paid to employees.

The Office of Tax Simplification (OTS) was tasked with a project to examine whether a closer alignment could be achieved between income tax and NICs. After its initial report in March 2016, the government asked the OTS to undertake further reviews on two recommendations from the initial report. The OTS has now published a further report on the recommendations.

The two recommendations are:

  • Moving to an annual, cumulative and aggregated assessment period for employees’ NICs on employment income, similar to PAYE for income tax. NICs would not be calculated separately on each employment but on all employments added together with one NIC free allowance split between them.
  • Basing employer NICs on whole payroll costs. At present, employer NICs are calculated at 13.8% of employees’ weekly or monthly pay, over a threshold of £156 per week. The OTS proposal is to break the link of employer NICs with the calculation of individual employees’ NICs and base the calculation of employers’ liabilities on total payroll costs. The OTS explored eight options of which the best would be to replace the employee threshold with a cumulative annual employee allowance per employer.

National insurance thresholds

From April 2017 the threshold above which employer and employee NICs will become payable will be aligned at £157 per week. This is as recommended by the OTS and should simplify the payment of NICs for employers.

National Living Wage and National Minimum Wage (NMW) rates

Following the recommendations of the independent Low Pay Commission, the government will increase the National Living Wage from £7.20 to £7.50 from April 2017. The government will also accept their recommendations to increase the NMW rates from April 2017 for:

  • 21 to 24 year olds from £6.95 to £7.05 per hour
  • 18 to 20 year olds from £5.55 to £5.60 per hour
  • 16 to 17 year olds from £4.00 to £4.05 per hour
  • apprentices from £3.40 to £3.50 per hour.

The NMW rates were last increased in October 2016.

The government has also announced that they will invest an additional £4.3 million per year to strengthen NMW enforcement. This will fund new HMRC teams to review those employers considered most at risk of non-compliance with the NMW. Other measures will provide additional support targeted at small businesses to help them comply and a campaign to raise awareness amongst workers and employers of their rights and responsibilities.

Legal support

From April 2017, all employees called to give evidence in court will no longer need to pay tax on legal support from their employer. This should help support all employees and ensure fairness in the tax system. Currently, only those requiring legal support because of allegations against them can use the tax relief.

Forms of remuneration review

Employers can choose to remunerate their employees in a range of different ways in addition to a cash salary. The tax system treats these different forms of remuneration inconsistently and the government will therefore consider how the system could be made fairer between workers carrying out the same work under different arrangements. The review will look specifically at how the taxation of benefits in kind and expenses could be made fairer and more coherent. The government will take the following action:

Salary Sacrifice

The tax and employer NICs advantage of salary sacrifice schemes will be removed from April 2017. This change will not apply to arrangements relating to pensions, childcare, Cycle to Work and ultra-low emission cars. This means that employees who exchange salary for benefits will pay the same tax as individuals who buy them out of their post-tax income. Arrangements in place before April 2017 will be protected until April 2018, and arrangements for cars, accommodation and school fees will be protected until April 2021.

Valuation of benefits in kind

The government will consider how benefits in kind are valued for tax purposes, publishing a consultation on employer-provided living accommodation and a call for evidence on the valuation of all other benefits in kind at Budget 2017.

Employee expenses

The government will publish a call for evidence at Budget 2017 on the use of the income tax relief for employees’ business expenses, including those that are not reimbursed by their employer.

Employer provided cars

The scale of charges for working out the taxable benefit for an employee who has use of an employer provided car are now announced well in advance. Most cars are taxed by reference to bands of CO2 emissions. There is a 3% diesel supplement. The maximum charge is capped at 37% of the list price of the car.

From 6 April 2017 there will be a 2% increase in the percentage applied by each band with a similar increase in 2018/19. For 2019/20 the rate will increase by a further 3%.

From 6 April 2017 the appropriate percentage for cars which have neither a CO2 emissions figure nor an engine cylinder capacity, and which cannot produce CO2 emissions in any circumstances by being driven, will be set at 9%. From 6 April 2018 this will be increased to 13% and from 6 April 2019 to 16%.

For 2020/21 new lower bands will be introduced for the lowest emitting cars whilst the appropriate percentage for cars emitting greater than 90 g/km will rise by one percentage point.

Capital Taxes

Capital gains tax (CGT) rates

The current rates of CGT are 10%, to the extent that any income tax basic rate band is available, and 20% thereafter. Higher rates of 18% and 28% apply for certain gains; mainly chargeable gains on residential properties that do not qualify for private residence relief.

The rate for disposals qualifying for Entrepreneurs’ Relief is 10% with a lifetime limit of £10 million for each individual. Entrepreneurs’ Relief is targeted at working directors and employees of companies who own at least 5% of the ordinary share capital in the company and the owners of unincorporated businesses. In 2016/17 a new relief, Investors’ Relief, was introduced which also provides a 10% rate with a lifetime limit of £10 million for each individual. The main beneficiaries of this relief are external investors in unquoted trading companies.

Example of CGT rates 2016/17

Annie, a higher rate taxpayer, will pay tax at these rates on the following chargeable gains after deduction of the annual exemption:

Type Amount of gain Tax rate
Eligible for Entrepreneurs’ Relief £100,000 10%
A residential property £30,000 28%
Other gains £10,000 20%

The annual exemption can be used in the most favourable way for the taxpayer – that is against the residential property gains in this example.

Inheritance tax (IHT) nil rate band

The nil rate band has remained at £325,000 since April 2009 and is set to remain frozen at this amount until April 2021.

IHT residence nil rate band

An additional nil rate band is being introduced for deaths on or after 6 April 2017 where an interest in a main residence passes to direct descendants. The amount of relief is being phased in over four years; starting at £100,000 in the first year and rising to £175,000 for 2020/21. For many married couples and civil partners the relief is effectively doubled as each individual has a main nil rate band and each will potentially benefit from the residence nil rate band.

The additional band can only be used in respect of one residential property which does not have to be the main family home but must at some point have been a residence of the deceased. Restrictions apply where estates are in excess of £2 million.

Where a person dies before 6 April 2017, their estate will not qualify for the relief. A surviving spouse may be entitled to an increase in the residence nil rate band if the spouse who died
earlier has not used, or was not entitled to use, their full residence nil rate band. The calculations involved are potentially complex but the increase will often result in a doubling of the residence nil rate band for the surviving spouse.

Downsizing

The residence nil rate band may also be available when a person downsizes or ceases to own a home on or after 8 July 2015 where assets of an equivalent value, up to the value of the residence nil rate band, are passed on death to direct descendants.

Comment

The potential increase in the nil rate band is to be welcomed by many individuals but the increase has introduced considerable complexity to IHT. From April 2017 we have three nil rate bands to consider. The standard nil rate band has been a part of the legislation from the start of IHT in 1986. In 2007 the ability to utilise the unused nil rate band of a deceased spouse was introduced enabling many surviving spouses to have a nil rate band of up to £650,000. By 6 April 2020 some surviving spouses will be able to add £350,000 in respect of the residence nil rate band to arrive at a total nil rate band of £1 million. However this will only be achieved by careful planning and, in some cases, it may be better for the first deceased spouse to have given some assets to the next generation and use up some or all of the available nil rate bands.

 

For many individuals, the residence nil rate band will be important but individuals will need to revisit their wills to ensure that the relief will be available and efficiently utilised.

Employee Shareholder Status to be abolished

Employee Shareholder Status (ESS) was made available from 1 September 2013 and enables employee shareholders, who agreed to give up certain statutory employment rights, to receive at least £2,000 of shares in their employer or parent company free of income tax and NICs. They also benefit from a CGT exemption on the eventual gains on shares with an original value of up to £50,000. This was subject to a lifetime limit of £100,000 for arrangements entered into after 16 March 2016.

These tax advantages linked to shares awarded under ESS will be abolished for arrangements entered into on or after 1 December 2016. The government has also announced that the status itself will be closed to new arrangements at the next legislative opportunity.

Comment
This change is being made in response to evidence suggesting that the status is primarily being used for tax planning instead of supporting a more flexible workforce.

Other Matters

Making Tax Digital

On 15 August 2016 HMRC published six consultation documents on Making Tax Digital. The six consultations set out detailed plans on how HMRC propose to fundamentally change the method by which taxpayers, particularly the self-employed and landlords, send information to HMRC. Two key changes proposed are:

  • From April 2018, self-employed taxpayers and landlords will be required to keep their business records digitally and submit information to HMRC on a quarterly basis and submit an End of Year declaration within nine months of the end of an accounting period (accounting periods are typically 12 months long).
  • HMRC will make better use of the information which they currently receive from third parties and will also require more up to date information from some third parties, such as details of bank interest. Employees and employers will see the updating of PAYE codes more regularly as HMRC use the data received from the third parties.

The government has announced it will publish its response to the consultations in January 2017 together with provisions to implement the changes.

Non-UK domiciles

A number of changes are to be made from 6 April 2017 for individuals who are non-UK domiciled but who have been resident for 15 of the previous 20 tax years. Such individuals will be classed as ‘deemed’ UK domiciles for income tax, CGT and IHT purposes.

For income tax and CGT, a deemed UK domicile will be assessable on worldwide income and gains. There will be relieving provisions for some individuals who become deemed UK domiciled, such as the ability to rebase overseas assets on 5 April 2017 for CGT purposes, but conditions will be set.

A deemed UK domicile is chargeable on worldwide assets for UK IHT rather than only on UK assets if non-UK domicile. The effect of these reforms is that an individual will become deemed UK domiciled for IHT at the start of their sixteenth consecutive year of UK residence, rather than at the start of their seventeenth year of residence under the current rules.

Non-UK domiciles with UK domicile of origin

Individuals with a UK domicile of origin, who were born in the UK and who resume UK residence after a period of being non-UK domicile will be treated as UK deemed domicile whilst resident in the UK. A short grace period is proposed for IHT before the rule impacts but not for income tax and CGT purposes.

UK residential property

Changes are also proposed for UK residential property. Currently all residential property in the UK is within the charge to IHT if owned by a UK or non-UK domiciled individual. It is proposed that all residential properties in the UK will be within the charge to IHT where they are held within an overseas structure. This charge will apply whether the overseas structure is held by an individual or trust.

Business Investment Relief

The government will change the rules for the Business Investment Relief scheme from April 2017 to make it easier for non-UK domiciled individuals, who are taxed on the remittance basis, to bring offshore money into the UK for the purpose of investing in UK businesses. The government will continue to consider further improvements to the rules for the scheme to attract more capital investment in UK businesses by non-UK domiciled individuals.

VAT Flat Rate Scheme

An anti-avoidance measure will be included within the Flat Rate Scheme. A new 16.5% rate will apply from 1 April 2017 for businesses with limited costs, such as many labour-only businesses, using the Flat Rate Scheme. Businesses using the scheme, or considering joining the scheme, will need to decide if they are a ‘limited cost trader’.

A limited cost trader will be will be defined as one whose VAT inclusive expenditure on goods is either:

  • less than 2% of their VAT inclusive turnover in a prescribed accounting period
  • greater than 2% of their VAT inclusive turnover but less than £1,000 per annum if the prescribed accounting period is one year (if it is not one year, the figure is the relevant proportion of £1,000).

There will be exclusions from the calculation to prevent attempts to inflate costs above 2%.

Comment

The Flat Rate Scheme is only available to smaller businesses. The flat rate depends on the trade sector and the rates range from 4% to 14.5%. Some businesses will need to perform further calculations to determine whether the trade sector rate or the 16.5% rate applies.

Insurance Premium Tax

The standard rate of Insurance Premium Tax will rise from 10% to 12% from 1 June 2017.

Comment

The rate was recently increased from 9.5% to 10% on 1 October 2016.

The last Autumn Statement

Following the spring 2017 Budget, the Budget will be delivered in the autumn, with the first one taking place in autumn 2017. The Office for Budget Responsibility will produce a spring forecast from spring 2018 and the government will make a Spring Statement responding to that forecast. The Statement will review wider economic and fiscal challenges and launch consultations. The government will retain the option to make changes to fiscal policy at the Spring Statement if the economic circumstances require it.

 

Comment

As the Chancellor stated in his speech ‘No other major economy makes hundreds of tax changes twice a year, and neither should we’. This change should also allow for greater Parliamentary scrutiny of Budget measures ahead of their implementation. We shall see whether the Chancellor refrains from making late policy changes in spring of each year.

 

Disclaimer – for information of users

This summary is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the main proposals announced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in his Autumn Statement, and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this summary can be accepted by the authors or the firm.

 

Newsletter – April 2016

Enews – April 2016

In this month’s eNews we report on pertinent Budget announcements. We also report on the introduction of the register of people with significant control and proposals for different Scottish tax bands.

Please do get in touch if you would like any further guidance on any of the areas covered.

Budget 2016

George Osborne presented his Budget on Wednesday 16 March 2016.

In his speech the Chancellor reported on ‘an economy set to grow faster than any other major advanced economy in the world’. Towards the end of 2015 the government issued many proposed clauses of Finance Bill 2016 together with updates on consultations. The Budget proposed further measures and some of the articles which follow summarise some of the key changes.

CBI Director-General, Carolyn Fairbairn, said:

‘After a year of surprises, this was a stable Budget for business facing global stormy waters. The Chancellor has listened to our concerns about the mounting burden on firms and chosen to back business to grow the economy out of the deficit.’

Internet links: GOV.UK CBI News

Register of people with significant control

From April 2016, rules are introduced which require companies to keep a register of People with Significant Control (PSC). In addition, the details of PSC will have to be filed with Companies House from 30 June 2016.

A PSC is defined as an individual that:

  • holds, directly or indirectly, more than 25% of the shares or voting rights in the company; or
  • holds the right, directly or indirectly, to appoint or remove a majority of the board of directors of the company; or
  • has the right to exercise, or actually exercises, significant influence or control over the company; or
  • where a trust or firm would satisfy any of the above conditions, any individual that has the right to exercise, or actually exercises, significant influence or control over the activities of that trust or firm.

The details of the individuals which need to be entered on the register include:

  • name and address
  • usual residential address, country of residence and nationality
  • date of birth
  • date when they became a PSC
  • the nature of their control over the company.

Failure to comply with the requirements of the PSC regime could lead to the company or directors, or identified PSCs committing a criminal offence. The company and its directors could face a fine or imprisonment or both.

Further guidance can be found on the Companies House website or please contact us for more guidance in this area.

Internet link: Companies House

National Minimum Wage rises

The National Minimum Wage (NMW) rates will increase from 1 October 2016 as follows:

Current rate Rate from 1 October 2016
21-24 year olds £6.70 £6.95
18-20 year olds £5.30 £5.55
16-17 year olds £3.87 £4.00
Apprentice rate* £3.30 £3.40

From 1 April 2016 following the introduction of the National Living Wage all workers aged 25 and over are legally entitled to at least £7.20 per hour. Employers should ensure that all affected employees benefit from this new rate from 1 April 2016.

*This apprentice rate is for apprentices aged 16 to 18 and those aged 19 or over who are in their first year. All other apprentices are entitled to the National Minimum Wage for their age.

Internet links: Parliament Living Wage

First Minister for Scotland plans to block UK tax ‘cuts’ in favour of public services

First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has announced plans that income tax rates in Scotland will be frozen, with no increases in the basic, higher or additional rates. However the significant cuts (reduction in income tax liabilities) which would result from the increases to the higher rate threshold proposed by the UK government would not be adopted in Scotland under the proposals. Their plans are that the higher rate threshold will be frozen in real terms and increased only in line with CPI inflation in 2017/18 and by no more than inflation until 2021/22.

The exact level of the higher rate threshold will be set out each year by the Scottish Government at the budget.

The Scottish Government’s believe their proposals are a more balanced approach which ‘will be fair to higher rate taxpayers while also generating additional revenue to be invested in Scotland’s public services such as the NHS’.

Under the proposals, the Scottish Government will ensure a Personal Allowance of £12,750 in 2021/22. If necessary, the Scottish Government will create a zero rate band to ensure that this protection for low income households is delivered.

Alongside the tax proposals, the First Minister published Scottish Government analysis that demonstrated any increase in the additional rate for top earners; whilst the UK rate remains at 45p; could put millions of pounds of revenue at risk. Accordingly, she confirmed that the additional rate will not increase in 2017/18, but that the analysis will be updated each year to inform decisions in future budgets.

Nicola Sturgeon said:

‘In setting out our proposals we have balanced the need to invest in and support our public services with a recognition that many households are still facing difficult economic challenges, and with the need to grow the Scottish economy.

We will not allow our public services to pay the price of an inflation busting tax decrease for the highest earning 10% of the population. We think that is the wrong choice and today we set out our alternative.

We will freeze the basic rate of tax for the duration of the next parliament. We do not believe it is right that those on low incomes are asked to pay for austerity. That does not tackle austerity, it simply shifts the burden to those who can least afford it.

No taxpayer will see their bill increase as a result of these Scottish Government proposals.

In 2017/18, instead of offering a large tax cut we will ensure the higher rate threshold rises only by inflation.

That means next year the threshold for higher rate taxpayers will go from £43,000 to £43,387’.

These proposals would introduce a difference between the amount of income tax payable by higher and additional rate taxpayers in Scotland to that paid by taxpayers with similar income in the rest of the UK.

Other parties have their own plans for the income tax rules for Scotland.

Internet link: Scotland Gov.News

Personal allowances and tax bands

For those born after 5 April 1938 the personal allowance is currently £10,600. Those born before 6 April 1938 have a slightly higher allowance. Legislation has already been enacted to increase the personal allowance to £11,000 in 2016/17. From 2016/17 onwards one personal allowance will apply regardless of age.

Not everyone has the benefit of the full personal allowance. There is a reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000 which is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for 2015/16 there is no personal allowance where adjusted net income exceeds £121,200 (£122,000 for 2016/17).

Tax bands and rates

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is £31,785 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies is £42,385 for those who are entitled to the full basic personal allowance.

Legislation has already been enacted to increase the basic rate limit to £32,000 for 2016/17. The higher rate threshold will therefore rise to £43,000 in 2016/17 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% remains payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Tax bands and personal allowance for 2017/18

The Chancellor has announced that the personal allowance will be increased to £11,500 and the basic rate limit increased to £33,500 for 2017/18. The higher rate threshold will therefore rise to £45,000 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

Reduction in corporation tax rate

The main rate of corporation tax is currently 20% and this rate will continue for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2016. In the following years the rate of tax will fall as follows:

  • 19% for the Financial Years beginning on 1 April 2017, 1 April 2018 and 1 April 2019.
  • 17% for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2020.

The 17% rate from April 2020 is a reduction of 1% from the rate previously announced by the Chancellor in his Summer Budget in 2015.

CBI Director-General, Carolyn Fairbairn, said:

‘The reduction in the headline Corporation Tax rate sends out a strong signal that the UK is open for global business investment, and reforms to Interest Deductibility are rightly in line with the international consensus.’

Personal service companies in the public sector

From April 2017, individuals working through their own company in the public sector will no longer be responsible for deciding whether the intermediaries legislation applies and then paying the relevant tax and NIC. This responsibility will instead pass to the public sector employer, agency or third party that pays the worker’s intermediary. The employer, agency or third party will have to decide if the rules apply to a contract and if so, account for and pay the liabilities through the Real Time Information (RTI) system and deduct the relevant tax and NIC.

HMRC has announced they will will provide help for public sector employers and agencies with their new responsibilities. They plan to introduce clear, objective tests for employers to use to decide at the point of hire whether or not they need to consider the new rules and then identify those engagements that are caught by the rules.

For cases that are less clear cut, HMRC have announced that they will develop a simple digital tool. This will be designed to provide employers engaging an incorporated worker with a ‘real-time’ HMRC view on whether or not the intermediaries rules need to be applied.

Chris Bryce, Chief Executive of the Association of Independent Professionals and the Self Employed (IPSE), commented:

‘The Chancellor announced a number of measures today which are likely to impact independent professionals and the self-employed. His move to extend rules for off-payroll working in the public sector will create confusion and disruption. The engaging department or agency will be made responsible for any tax liability. This will result in genuine businesses having to jump through numerous hoops and will see the cost of engaging contractors increase. It will endanger the delivery of vital public services and important projects like HS2.’

Internet link: HMRC Off payroll working

Business rates

Business rates have been devolved to Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. The Chancellor has announced cuts on business rates for half of all properties in England from 1 April 2017. In particular the government proposes to:

permanently double the Small Business Rate Relief (SBRR) from 50% to 100% and increase the thresholds to benefit a greater number of businesses. Businesses with a rateable value of £12,000 and below will receive 100% relief, rateable values between £12,000 and £15,000 will receive tapered relief increase the threshold for the standard business rates multiplier to a rateable value of £51,000 taking 250,000 smaller properties out of the higher rate.

The government also proposes to modernise the administration of business rates to revalue properties more frequently and make it easier for businesses to pay the taxes that are due.

CBI Director-General, Carolyn Fairbairn, said:

‘Businesses will welcome the Chancellor’s permanent reforms to business rates – taking more small firms out of the regime and changing the uprating mechanism from RPI to CPI, which the CBI has long been calling for.’

Lifetime ISA

A new Lifetime ISA will be available from April 2017 for adults under the age of 40. Individuals will be able to contribute up to £4,000 per year and receive a 25% bonus from the government. Funds, including the government bonus, can be used to buy a first home at any time from 12 months after opening the account, and can be withdrawn from age 60 completely tax-free.

Further details of the new account, which will be available from 2017, are as follows:

  • Any savings an individual puts into the account before their 50th birthday will receive an added 25% bonus from the government.
  • There is no maximum monthly contribution and up to £4,000 a year can be saved into a Lifetime ISA.
  • The savings and bonus can be used towards a deposit on a first home worth up to £450,000 across the country.
  • Accounts are limited to one per person rather than one per home, so two first time buyers can both receive a bonus when buying together.
  • Where an individual already has a Help to Buy ISA they will be able to transfer those savings into the Lifetime ISA in 2017, or continue saving into both. However only the bonus from one account can be used to buy a house.
  • Where the funds are withdrawn at any time before the account holder is aged 60 they will lose the government bonus (and any interest or growth on this) and will also have to pay a 5% charge. After the account holder’s 60th birthday they will be able to take all the savings tax-free.

The Chancellor said in his speech:

‘My pension reforms have always been about giving people more freedom and more choice.

So faced with the truth that young people aren’t saving enough, I am today providing a different answer to the same problem.’

Internet link: GOV.UK lifetime-isa-explained

Capital gains tax rates

The current rates of capital gains tax (CGT) are 18% to the extent that total taxable income does not exceed the basic rate band and 28% thereafter.

The government is to reduce the higher rate of CGT from 28% to 20% and the basic rate from 18% to 10%. The trust CGT rate will also reduce from 28% to 20%.

The 28% and 18% rates will continue to apply for carried interest and for chargeable gains on residential property that do not qualify for private residence relief. In addition, the 28% rate still applies for ATED related chargeable gains accruing to any person (principally companies).

These changes will take effect for disposals made on or after 6 April 2016.

The rate for disposals qualifying for Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER) remains at 10% with a lifetime limit of £10 million for each individual.

 

Budget 2016 – An Overview

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The Budget 2016

George Osborne presented the first Spring Budget of this Parliament on Wednesday 16 March 2016.

In his speech the Chancellor reported on ‘an economy set to grow faster than any other major advanced economy in the world’.

Towards the end of last year the government issued the majority of the clauses, in draft, of Finance Bill 2016 together with updates on consultations. Publication of draft Finance Bill clauses is now an established way in which tax policy is developed, communicated and legislated.

The Budget updates some of these previous announcements and also proposes further measures. Some of these changes apply immediately, others in April 2016 and some take effect at a later date.

Our summary focuses on the issues likely to affect you, your family and your business. To help you decipher what was said we have included our own comments. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact us for advice.

Main Budget tax proposals

Our summary concentrates on the tax measures which include:

  • reductions in the rates of capital gains tax
  • introduction of a Lifetime ISA for under 40s
  • changes to Entrepreneurs’ Relief
  • abolition of Class 2 NIC
  • reduction in the corporation tax rate
  • reforms to corporate tax losses.

The Budget proposals may be subject to amendment in a Finance Act. You should contact us before taking any action as a result of the contents of this summary.

This summary is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the main proposals announced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in his Budget Statement, and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this summary can be accepted by the authors or the firm.

Personal Tax

The personal allowance

For those born after 5 April 1938 the personal allowance is currently £10,600. Those born before 6 April 1938 have a slightly higher allowance. Legislation has already been enacted to increase the personal allowance to £11,000 in 2016/17. From 2016/17 onwards one personal allowance will apply regardless of age.

Comment

Not everyone has the benefit of the full personal allowance. There is a reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000 which is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for 2015/16 there is no personal allowance where adjusted net income exceeds £121,200 (£122,000 for 2016/17).

Tax bands and rates

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is £31,785 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies is £42,385 for those who are entitled to the full basic personal allowance.

Legislation has already been enacted to increase the basic rate limit to £32,000 for 2016/17. The higher rate threshold will therefore rise to £43,000 in 2016/17 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% remains payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Tax bands and personal allowance for 2017/18

The Chancellor has announced that the personal allowance will be increased to £11,500 and the basic rate limit increased to £33,500 for 2017/18. The higher rate threshold will therefore rise to £45,000 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

Tax bands and rates – dividends

Currently, when a dividend is paid to an individual, it is subject to different tax rates compared to other income due to a 10% notional tax credit being added to the dividend. So for an individual who has dividend income which falls into the basic rate band the effective tax rate is nil as the 10% tax credit covers the 10% tax liability. For higher rate and additional rate taxpayers, the effective tax rates on a dividend receipt are 25% and 30.6% respectively.

To determine which tax band dividends fall into, dividends are treated as the last type of income to be taxed.

From 6 April 2016:

  • the 10% dividend tax credit is abolished with the result that the cash dividend received will be the gross amount potentially subject to tax
  • a new Dividend Tax Allowance charges the first £5,000 of dividends received in a tax year at 0%
  • for dividends above £5,000, new rates of tax on dividend income will be 7.5% for basic rate taxpayers, 32.5% for higher rate taxpayers and 38.1% for additional rate taxpayers.

 

Comment

Many individuals do not have £5,000 of dividend income so are potential winners in the new regime. The removal of any tax on dividends up to £5,000 increases the attractiveness of holding some investments which provide dividend returns rather than interest receipts. Use can then also be made of the CGT annual exemption by selective selling of investments.

Basic rate taxpayers in particular need to appreciate that all dividends received still form part of the total income of an individual. If dividends above £5,000 are received, the first £5,000 will use up some or all of any basic rate band available. The element of dividends above £5,000 which are taxable may well therefore be taxed at 32.5%.

Tax on savings income

Savings income is income such as bank and building society interest. In 2015/16 some individuals qualify for a 0% starting rate of tax on savings income up to £5,000. However, the rate is not available if taxable non-savings income (broadly earnings, pensions, trading profits and property income) exceeds the starting rate limit.

The starting rate limit remains at £5,000 for 2016/17.

In addition, from 2016/17 the Savings Allowance (SA) will apply to savings income. Income within the SA will be taxed at a new 0% rate (the ‘savings nil rate’). However, the available SA in a tax year will depend on the individual’s marginal rate of income tax. Individuals taxed at up to the basic rate of tax will have an SA of £1,000.

For higher rate taxpayers, the SA will be £500 whilst no SA is due to additional rate taxpayers.

Alongside the introduction of the SA, banks and building societies will cease to deduct tax from account interest they pay to customers.

Comment

The new SA will exempt from tax interest receipts for many taxpayers. The government anticipates that around 95% of taxpayers will not have any tax to pay on their savings income. However, the allowance works in a complex way. For example, a taxpayer whose total non-savings income is near to £43,000 in 2016/17 (the point from which higher rate taxes are payable) needs to be aware that savings income is still added to other income to determine whether the SA is £1,000 or £500.

Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)

The overall ISA savings limit is £15,240 for 2015/16 and will remain at this figure for 2016/17.

Two changes are proposed with effect from 6 April 2016. The following changes will be made to the existing ISA Regulations:

  • Savers will be allowed to replace cash they have withdrawn from their account earlier in a tax year, without this replacement counting towards the annual ISA limit for that year. This flexibility will be available in relation to both current year and earlier years’ ISA savings where provided for in the terms and conditions of a ‘flexible ISA’.
  • A third ISA, the Innovative Finance ISA, is being introduced for loans arranged via a peer to peer (P2P) platform.

The total an individual can save each year into all ISAs will be increased from £15,240 to £20,000 from April 2017.

Lifetime ISA

A new Lifetime ISA will be available from April 2017 for adults under the age of 40. Individuals will be able to contribute up to £4,000 per year and receive a 25% bonus from the government. Funds, including the government bonus, can be used to buy a first home at any time from 12 months after opening the account, and can be withdrawn from age 60 completely tax-free.

Further details of the new account, which will be available from 2017, are as follows:

  • Any savings an individual puts into the account before their 50th birthday will receive an added 25% bonus from the government.
  • There is no maximum monthly contribution and up to £4,000 a year can be saved into a Lifetime ISA.
  • The savings and bonus can be used towards a deposit on a first home worth up to £450,000 across the country.
  • Accounts are limited to one per person rather than one per home, so two first time buyers can both receive a bonus when buying together.
  • Where an individual already has a Help to Buy ISA they will be able to transfer those savings into the Lifetime ISA in 2017, or continue saving into both. However only the bonus from one account can be used to buy a house.
  • Where the funds are withdrawn at any time before the account holder is aged 60 they will lose the government bonus (and any interest or growth on this) and will also have to pay a 5% charge.
  • After the account holder’s 60th birthday they will be able to take all the savings tax-free.

Comment

The new Lifetime ISA is designed to allow flexible saving for first time buyers and those wishing to save for their retirement. The Chancellor said in his speech:

‘My pension reforms have always been about giving people more freedom and more choice.

So faced with the truth that young people aren’t saving enough, I am today providing a different answer to the same problem.’

Help to Save

The government has announced the introduction of a new type of savings account aimed at low income working households.

Individuals in low income working households will be able to save up to £50 a month into a Help to Save account and receive a 50% government bonus after two years. Account holders can then choose to continue saving under the scheme for a further two years. The scheme will be open to all adults in receipt of Universal Credit with minimum weekly household earnings equivalent to 16 hours at the National Living Wage or those in receipt of Working Tax Credits.

Accounts will be available no later than April 2018.

Pensions consultation and reform

The government consultation ‘Strengthening the incentive to save’ looked at the way pensions are taxed. The consultation found that while the current system gives everyone an incentive to save into a pension, and people like the 25% tax free lump sum, it is also inflexible and poorly understood. Young people in particular are not saving enough, often because they feel they have to choose between saving for their first home and saving for retirement.

Comment

The Chancellor said in his speech:

Over the past year we’ve consulted widely on whether we should make compulsory changes to the pension tax system. But it was clear there is no consensus.’

The Chancellor is introducing the Lifetime ISA as a vehicle for younger people to save.

Pensions advice

The Financial Advice Market Review (FAMR) aims to support the provision of affordable and accessible advice. FAMR was a joint review between the Financial Conduct Authority and Her Majesty’s Treasury, and its recommendations were published on 14 March 2016.

The government commits to implement all of the recommendations for which it is responsible, and will:

  • Consult on introducing a single clear definition of financial advice to remove regulatory uncertainty and ensure that firms can offer consumers the help they need.
  • Increase the existing £150 Income Tax and National Insurance relief for employer arranged pension advice to £500. The new exemption will ensure that the first £500 of any advice received is eligible for the relief. It will be available from April 2017.
  • Consult on introducing a Pensions Advice Allowance. This will allow people before the age of 55 to withdraw up to £500 tax free from their defined contribution pension to redeem against the cost of financial advice. The exact age at which people can do this will be determined through consultation. This means that a basic rate taxpayer could save £100 on the cost of financial advice.

The government will also restructure the delivery of public financial guidance to make it more effective.

Phased rollout of Tax-Free Childcare

The government has announced it will introduce Tax-Free Childcare in early 2017. Tax-Free Childcare will be gradually rolled out to children under 12 with the parents of the youngest children being able to enter the scheme first. The scheme will be open to all eligible parents by the end of 2017.

The existing scheme, Employer-Supported Childcare, will remain open to new entrants until April 2018 to support the transition between the schemes.

Business Tax

Corporation tax rates

The main rate of corporation tax is currently 20% and this rate will continue for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2016. The main rate of corporation tax will then be reduced as follows:

  • 19% for the Financial Years beginning on 1 April 2017, 1 April 2018 and 1 April 2019
  • 17% for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2020.

Corporate tax loss relief

The government will introduce two reforms to corporate tax losses from April 2017. First, losses arising on or after 1 April 2017 will be useable, when carried forward, against profits from other income streams or other companies within a group. Second, from 1 April 2017, companies will only be able to use losses carried forward against up to 50% of their profits above £5 million. For groups, the £5 million allowance will apply to the group.

Capital allowances on business cars

The current 100% first year allowance (FYA) on businesses purchasing low emission cars will be extended to April 2021. A low emission car is one where the CO2 emissions do not exceed 75 gm/km and this threshold will fall to 50 gm/km from April 2018. In addition, the CO2 emission threshold for the main rate of capital allowances for business cars will reduce from 130 gm/km to 110 gm/km from April 2018.

Corporation tax payment dates

At the Summer Budget 2015, the government announced it would bring forward corporation tax payment dates for companies with taxable profits over £20 million. This measure has been deferred by two years and will now apply to accounting periods starting on or after 1 April 2019.

Loans to participators

The 25% rate of tax charged on loans to participators and other arrangements by close companies will increase to 32.5%.  This applies to loans made and benefits conferred on or after 6 April 2016. This increased rate mirrors the dividend upper rate. The government has noted that this will prevent individuals gaining a tax advantage by taking loans or making other arrangements to extract value from their company rather than remuneration or dividends.

Enterprise Zones – enhanced capital allowances

This measure extends the period in which businesses investing in new plant and machinery in ECA sites in Enterprise Zones can qualify for 100% capital allowances to eight years.

Removal of statutory renewals allowance

The government will withdraw the statutory renewals allowance, which provides businesses with tax relief for the cost of replacing tools. The changes ensure that tax relief for expenditure incurred on the replacement of tools will be obtained under the same rules as those which apply to other capital equipment. Businesses will be able to claim tax relief under the normal capital allowance regime or, in the case of residential landlords, for the cost of replacing domestic items such as furnishings and appliances. The withdrawal will come into effect for expenditure on or after 6 April 2016 for income tax purposes and from 1 April 2016 for corporation tax.

Company distributions

Legislation will be introduced with effect from 6 April 2016 to:

  • amend the Transactions in Securities legislation, which is designed to prevent tax advantages in certain circumstances. The amendments, for example, include liquidations as potentially coming within the scope of the legislation
  • introduce a new Targeted Anti-Avoidance Rule, which would prevent some distributions in a liquidation being taxed as capital, where certain conditions are met and there is an intention to gain a tax advantage.

Comment

In some situations shareholders of close companies can receive a payment from the company which is taxed as a capital gain instead of as dividend income. If Entrepreneurs’ Relief is available the gain will be subject to only 10% tax. The government is concerned that the new dividend tax rates introduced from 6 April 2016 will encourage shareholders to convert to capital what might otherwise be taxed as income.

Abolition of Class 2 National Insurance Contributions (NIC)

The government will abolish Class 2 NIC from April 2018. The government will publish its response to the recent consultation on state benefit entitlement for the self-employed in due course. This will set out details of how the self-employed will access contributory benefits after Class 2 is abolished.

Property and trading income allowances

From April 2017, the government will introduce a new £1,000 allowance for property and trading income. Individuals with property or trading income below £1,000 will no longer need to declare or pay tax on that income. Those with income above the allowance will be able to calculate their taxable profit either by deducting their expenses in the normal way or by simply deducting the relevant allowance.

Making tax digital

From 2018 businesses, self-employed people and landlords who are keeping records digitally and providing regular digital updates to HMRC will be able to adopt pay-as-you-go tax payments. This will enable them to choose payment patterns that suit them and better manage their cash flow.

Reform of Substantial Shareholding Exemption (SSE)

SSE means that capital gains on corporate share disposals are not subject to UK corporation tax where certain conditions are satisfied. It was introduced in 2002 and was designed to ensure that tax does not act as a disincentive to commercially desirable business sales or group restructuring. There have been significant developments in the UK and international corporate tax landscape since the SSE was first introduced. The government will therefore consult on the extent to which the SSE is still delivering on its original policy objective and whether there could be changes to its detailed design in order to increase its simplicity, coherence and international competitiveness.

Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT)

The rate of PRT will be permanently reduced to zero for all chargeable periods ending after 31 December 2015.

Anti-avoidance

The government will change the deduction of tax at source regime to bring all international royalty payments arising in the UK within the charge to income tax, unless those taxing rights have been given up under a double taxation agreement or the EU Interest and Royalties Directive.

Employment Taxes

NIC for apprentices under 25

From 6 April 2016 employer NICs are 0% for apprentices under 25 who earn less than the upper secondary threshold (UST) which is £827 per week (£43,000 per annum). Employers are liable to 13.8% NIC on pay above the UST. Employee NICs are payable as normal.

An apprentice needs to:

  • be working towards a government recognised apprenticeship in the UK which follows a government approved framework/standard
  • have a written agreement, giving the government recognised apprentice framework or standard, with a start and expected completion date.

Employers need to identify relevant apprentices and generally assign them NIC category letter H to ensure the correct NICs are collected.

Comment

The proposals exclude apprenticeships which do not follow government approved frameworks, also known as common law apprenticeships. A similar 0% rate of employer NIC already applies for employees under the age of 21.

Employee benefits and expenses changes from 6 April 2016

From 6 April 2016 a number of changes are introduced relating to the tax treatment of employee benefits in kind and expenses:

  • There will be a statutory exemption for certain expenses, such as travelling and subsistence expenses, reimbursed to an employee. This will replace the current system where employers have to apply for a dispensation to avoid having to report non-taxable expenses (on forms P11D).
  • Employers will be able to include taxable benefits in pay and thus account for PAYE on the benefits. However, in order to payroll benefits for 2016/17, employers will have to register with HMRC for the service before the start of the new tax year. Employers will then not have to include these payrolled benefits on forms P11D.
  • The £8,500 threshold below which employees do not pay income tax on certain benefits in kind will be removed. There will be new exemptions for carers and ministers of religion.

Comment

The statutory exemption for reimbursed expenses will mean that all employees will automatically get the tax relief they are due on qualifying expenses payments.

Another option is introduced which allows amounts based on scale rates to be paid or reimbursed, instead of the employee’s actual costs. The rates that can be used are either HMRC approved figures or figures specifically agreed with HMRC in writing.

The approved figures only cover meals purchased by an employee in the course of business travel.

Simplification of the administration of tax on employee benefits and expenses

The government will introduce a package of measures to further simplify the tax administration of employee benefits and expenses by:

  • extending the voluntary payrolling framework to allow employers to account for tax on non-cash vouchers and credit tokens in real time from April 2017
  • consulting on proposals to simplify the process for applying for and agreeing PAYE Settlement Agreements
  • consulting on proposals to align the dates by which an employee has to make a payment to their employer in return for a benefit-in-kind they receive to ‘make good’
  • legislating to ensure that if there is a specific statutory provision for calculating the tax charge on a benefit in kind, this must be used.

Employer provided cars

The scale of charges for working out the taxable benefit for an employee who has use of an employer provided car are now announced well in advance. Most cars are taxed by reference to bands of CO2 emissions. There is a 3% diesel supplement. The maximum charge is capped at 37% of the list price of the car.

From 6 April 2016 there will be a 2% increase in the percentage applied by each band with similar increases in 2017/18 and 2018/19. For 2019/20 the rate will increase by a further 3%.

From 6 April 2017 the appropriate percentage for cars which have neither a CO2 emissions figure nor an engine cylinder capacity, and which cannot produce CO2 emissions in any circumstances by being driven, will be set at 9%. From 6 April 2018 this will be increased to 13%, and from 6 April 2019 to 16%.

Van benefit charge for zero emissions vans

The van benefit charge for 2015/16 is £3,150 increasing to £3,170 in 2016/17.

The government will extend van benefit charge support for zero-emission vans so that from 6 April 2016 the charge will be 20% of the main rate in 2016/17 and 2017/18, and will then increase on a tapered basis to 5 April 2022. The government will review the impact of this incentive at Budget 2018 together with enhanced capital allowances for zero-emission vans.

Taxation of termination payments

From April 2018 the government will tighten the scope of the income tax exemption for termination payments to prevent manipulation.

Termination payments over £30,000 which are subject to income tax will also be subject to employer NIC. The government will undertake a technical consultation on tightening

the scope of the exemption.

Travel and subsistence expenses rules

In September 2015 the government published a discussion document aimed at modernising the tax rules for travel and subsistence (T&S). The government has analysed responses and concluded that, although complex in parts, the current T&S rules are generally well understood and work effectively for the majority of employees and has decided not to make further changes to the T&S rules at this time.

Employment intermediaries and relief for travel and subsistence

As announced at March Budget 2015, the government will introduce legislation in Finance Bill 2016 to restrict tax relief for home to work travel and subsistence expenses for workers engaged through an employment intermediary. This will bring the rules into line with those that apply to employees.

Simplifying the NIC rules

The government will commission the Office of Tax Simplification to review the impact of moving employee NIC to an annual, cumulative and aggregated basis and moving employer NIC to a payroll basis.

Disguised remuneration schemes

The government will introduce a package of measures to tackle the current and historic use of disguised remuneration schemes, which are used to avoid income tax and NIC. Legislation will be included in Finance Bill 2016 which will prevent a relief in the existing legislation from applying where it is used as part of a tax avoidance scheme from Budget Day.

The government will hold a technical consultation on further changes to the legislation which will be included in a future Finance Bill. This will include a new charge on loans paid through disguised remuneration schemes which have not been taxed and are still outstanding on 5 April 2019.

Employee share schemes: simplification of the rules

The government will make a number of technical changes to simplify the tax-advantaged and non-tax-advantaged employee share scheme rules.

Employment Allowance

The NIC Employment Allowance was introduced from 6 April 2014. It is an annual allowance which is available to many employers and can be offset against their employer NIC liability.

From April 2016, the government will increase the NIC Employment Allowance from £2,000 to £3,000 a year. The increase will mean that businesses will be able to employ four workers full time on the new National Living Wage without paying any NIC.

To ensure that the NIC Employment Allowance is focussed on businesses and charities that support employment, from April 2016 companies where the director is the sole employee will no longer be able to claim the Employment Allowance.

Employers who hire an illegal worker face civil penalties from the Home Office. The government will build on this deterrent by removing a year’s Employment Allowance from those receiving civil penalties, starting in 2018.

Salary sacrifice

The government is considering limiting the range of benefits that attract income tax and NIC advantages when provided as part of salary sacrifice schemes. However, the government’s intention is that pension saving, childcare, and health-related benefits such as Cycle to Work should continue to benefit from income tax and NIC relief when provided through salary sacrifice arrangements.

Off-payroll working in the public sector

From April 2017 the government will make public sector bodies and agencies responsible for operating the tax rules that apply to off-payroll working through limited companies in the public sector. The rules will remain unchanged for those working in the private sector. Liability to pay the correct employment taxes will move from the worker’s own company to the public sector body or agency/third party paying the company.

The government will consult on a clearer and simpler set of tests and online tools.

Capital Taxes

Capital gains tax (CGT) rates

The current rates of CGT are 18% to the extent that any income tax basic rate band is available and 28% thereafter. The government is to reduce the higher rate of CGT from 28% to 20% and the basic rate from 18% to 10%. The trust CGT rate will also reduce from 28% to 20%. The 28% and 18% rates will continue to apply for carried interest and for chargeable gains on residential property that do not qualify for private residence relief. In addition, the 28% rate still applies for ATED related chargeable gains accruing to any person (principally companies). These changes will take effect for disposals made on or after 6 April 2016.

The rate for disposals qualifying for Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER) remains at 10% with a lifetime limit of £10 million for each individual.

Example 2016/17

Annie, a higher rate taxpayer, has the following chargeable gains after the annual exemption:

•         Gains eligible for ER £100,000

•         A residential property gain £30,000

•         Other gains £10,000

The ER gain is taxable at 10%. The residential property gain will be taxed at 28% and other gains at 20%.

Goodwill on Incorporation and ER

New rules were introduced from 3 December 2014 which prevent individuals from claiming ER on disposals of goodwill when they transfer their business to a related company in which they, or a member of their family, held any shares whatsoever. This means that CGT became payable on the gain at the normal rates of 18% or 28% rather than 10%.

Revised legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2016 to allow ER to be claimed in respect of gains on goodwill where the individual holds less than 5% of the shares, and less than 5% of the voting power, in the acquiring company.

Relief will also be due where an individual holds 5% or more of the shares or voting power if the transfer of the business to the company is part of arrangements for the company to be sold to a new, independent owner.

This measure will have backdated effect and will therefore apply to disposals on or after 3 December 2014.

Associated disposals and ER

New rules were introduced in 2015 which were aimed at combatting abuse of ER. Whilst preventing the abuse, those rules also resulted in relief not being due on ‘associated disposals’ when a business was sold to members of the claimant’s family under normal succession arrangements.

Certain revisions are to be made so that ER will be allowed on a disposal of a privately-held asset when the accompanying disposal of business assets is to a family member.

In addition, under the 2015 rules an associated disposal can only qualify for ER if there is also a material disposal of 5% or more of the claimant’s share in a partnership or holding in a company. Under the proposals this is not to apply where the claimant disposes of the whole of his interest and has previously held a larger stake.

These changes will have a backdated effect for associated disposals made on or after 18 March 2015.

Joint ventures, partnerships and ER

Changes introduced in 2015 to combat abuse of ER also resulted in relief not being due to investors in some types of genuine commercial structures where tax avoidance was not a main motive. Those affected were companies with shares in joint venture companies and corporate partners with shares in trading companies because their investments were reclassified as non-trading activities. ER is only available to companies or partnerships which are predominantly trading so ER status was lost in a number of cases.

To enable genuine commercial structures to qualify for ER, this measure changes the definitions of a ‘trading company’ and a ‘trading group’ which apply for ER. Where the new definitions apply, a company which holds shares in a joint venture company will be treated as carrying on a proportion of the activities of that company corresponding to the investing company’s fractional shareholding in it. Also, the activities of a corporate partner in a firm will be treated as having their true nature (trading or non-trading) when determining whether the company is a trading company.

It will also be a requirement that the person making the disposal on which relief is claimed has at least a 5% interest in the shares of the joint venture company, and effectively controls at least 5% of the voting rights in that company. Where a partnership with a corporate partner is concerned, the person making the disposal must be entitled to at least 5% of the partnership’s assets and profits, and control at least 5% of the voting rights in the corporate partner.

The new definitions mean that, in some cases, whether a company is a trading company or the holding company of a trading group will depend on the size of the claimant’s shareholding in the company.

External investors and ER

ER will be extended to external investors (other than employees or officers of the company) in unlisted trading companies. To qualify for the 10% CGT rate under ‘investors’ relief’ the following conditions will apply:

  • shares must be newly issued and subscribed for by the individual for new consideration
  • be in an unlisted trading company, or an unlisted holding company of a trading group
  • have been issued by the company on or after 17 March 2016 and have been held for a period of three years from 6 April 2016
  • have been held continuously for a period of three years before disposal.

An individual’s qualifying gains for investors’ relief will be subject to a lifetime cap of £10 million.

Capital gains and employee shareholder agreements

The ‘employee shareholder’ was a new employment status made available from 1 September 2013. Employee shareholders who agreed to give up certain statutory employment rights received in exchange at least £2,000 of shares in their employer or parent company free of income tax and national insurance. Qualifying conditions do apply.

Any eventual gains on shares received with an original value of up to £50,000 are CGT free. However, a lifetime limit of £100,000 on the CGT exempt gains is introduced on disposals under Employee Shareholder Agreements entered into after 16 March 2016.

Other Matters

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) and Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT)

The Chancellor announced in the Autumn Statement that new rates of SDLT on purchases of additional residential properties would apply from 1 April 2016. Similar legislation was introduced in the Scottish Parliament for LBTT which applies to property transactions in Scotland. The LBTT legislation has now been enacted.

The new rates will be three percentage points above the current SDLT and LBTT rates. The higher rates will potentially apply if, at the end of the day of the purchase transaction, the individual owns two or more residential properties.

The SDLT proposals were subject to a consultation. The government has now announced:

  • purchasers will have 36 months rather than 18 months to claim a refund of the higher rates if they buy a new main residence before disposing of their previous main residence
  • purchasers will also have 36 months between selling a main residence and replacing it with another main residence without having to pay the higher rates
  • a small share in a property which has been inherited within the 36 months prior to a transaction will not be considered as an additional property when applying the higher rates
  • there will be no exemption from the higher rates for significant investors.

Comment

The main target of the higher rates is purchases of buy to let properties or second homes. However, there will be some purchasers who will have to pay the additional charge even though the property purchased will not be a buy to let or a second home. The proposed 36 month rules above will help to remove some transactions from the additional rates (or allow a refund). Care will be needed if an individual already owns, or partly owns, a property and transacts to purchase another property without having disposed of the first property.

LBTT has been enacted with the 18 month periods rather than 36 months.

SDLT on non-residential property

The government will change the calculation of SDLT on freehold and leasehold premium non-residential transactions, on and after 17 March 2016, so the rates apply to the portion of the purchase price within each band. The SDLT rates and thresholds for non-residential freehold and leasehold premiums will also change from the same date.

For new leasehold transactions, SDLT is already charged at each rate on the portion of the net present value (NPV) of the rent which falls within each band. On and after 17 March 2016 a new 2% rate for rent paid under a non-residential lease will be introduced where the NPV of the rent is above £5 million.

Comment

The LBTT on non-residential properties in Scotland is already based on a similar system to that proposed for SDLT.

VAT: overseas businesses and online marketplaces

Changes will be made to the existing rules which allow HMRC to direct an overseas business to appoint a VAT representative with joint and several liability. A new provision will then enable HMRC to hold an online marketplace jointly and severally liable for the unpaid VAT of an overseas business that sells goods in the UK via that online marketplace.

The measure will have effect from Royal Assent to Finance Bill 2016.

Comment

The objective of this measure is to give HMRC strengthened operational powers to tackle the non-compliance from some overseas businesses that avoid paying UK VAT on sales of goods made to UK consumers via online marketplaces. It is directed at getting overseas businesses, that are or should be VAT registered in the UK, paying VAT due either directly or through a VAT representative.

Business rates

Business rates have been devolved to Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. The Chancellor has announced cuts on business rates for half of all properties in England from 1 April 2017. In particular the government proposes to:

  • Permanently double Small Business Rate Relief (SBRR) from 50% to 100% and increase the thresholds to benefit a greater number of businesses. Businesses with a property with a rateable value of £12,000 and below will receive 100% relief.
  • Increase the threshold for the standard business rates multiplier to a rateable value of £51,000, taking 250,000 smaller properties out of the higher rate.

Insurance Premium Tax

The standard rate of IPT will be increased from 9.5% to 10% with effect from 1 October 2016.

General Anti-Abuse Rule (GAAR)

The government will legislate to introduce a new penalty of 60% of tax due to be charged in all cases successfully tackled by the GAAR. Small changes to the GAAR procedure will be made to improve its ability to tackle marketed avoidance schemes.

New soft drinks industry levy

The government will introduce a new soft drinks industry levy to be paid by producers and importers of soft drinks that contain added sugar. The levy will be charged on volumes according to total sugar content, with a main rate charge for drink above 5 grams of sugar per 100 millilitres and a higher rate for drinks with more than 8 grams of sugar per 100 millilitres. There will be an exclusion for small operators.

It is proposed to introduce the measure from April 2018.

 

The Second Budget 2015 – An Overview

The Second Budget 2015

George Osborne presented the first Budget of this Parliament on Wednesday 8 July 2015. The speech set out his plans for the next five years ‘to keep moving us from a low wage, high tax, high welfare economy; to the higher wage, lower welfare country we intend to create’.

Main Budget tax proposals

  • New taxation system for dividend receipts for individuals.
  • Proposals to restrict interest relief for ‘buy to let’ landlords.
  • Extension to the inheritance tax nil rate band available.

Other tax changes

  • An announcement of the amount of the Annual Investment Allowance available to businesses from January 2016.
  • Removal of the tax relief available on the acquisition of goodwill and customer related intangibles.
  • An increase in the amount of the NIC Employment Allowance.

The government also announced a number of changes to tax credits and Universal Credit as part of the welfare reforms aimed at reducing the growing expenditure in this area.

Our summary focuses on the tax issues likely to affect you, your family and your business. To help you decipher what was announced we have included our own comments.

If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact us for advice.

The Budget proposals may be subject to amendment in a Finance Act. You should contact us before taking any action as a result of the contents of this summary.

 

Personal Tax

The personal allowance for 2015/16

For those born after 5 April 1938 the personal allowance is £10,600. For those born before 6 April 1938 the personal allowance remains at £10,660. The reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000 is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for 2015/16 there is no personal allowance where adjusted net income exceeds £121,200.

Commitments to increase the personal allowance

The Chancellor announced that the personal allowance will be increased to £11,000 for 2016/17 and to £11,200 in 2017/18. These allowances are higher than those previously announced in the March Budget.

Legislation to ensure a tax-free minimum wage

The government has an objective to raise the personal allowance to £12,500 and the higher rate threshold to £50,000 by the end of this Parliament.

The government has announced that the personal allowance will automatically increase in line with the equivalent of 30 hours a week at the adult rate of the national minimum wage once the personal allowance reaches £12,500.

Tax bands and rates for 2015/16

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is £31,785 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies is £42,385 for those who are entitled to the full basic personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% is payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Currently dividend income is taxed at 10% where it falls within the basic rate band and 32.5% where liable at the higher rate of tax. Where income exceeds £150,000, dividends are taxed at 37.5%. Dividend income is deemed to be paid net of a notional 10% tax credit.

Some individuals qualify for the 0% starting rate of tax on savings income up to £5,000. The rate is not available if taxable non-savings income (broadly earnings, pensions, trading profits and property income) exceeds the starting rate limit.

Commitment to increase the 40% income tax threshold

The Chancellor announced that the basic rate limit will be increased to £32,000 for 2016/17 and to £32,400 for 2017/18.

The higher rate threshold will rise to £43,000 in 2016/17 and £43,600 in 2017/18 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

Personal Savings Allowance

The Chancellor announced in the March Budget that legislation will be introduced in a future Finance Bill to apply a Personal Savings Allowance to income such as bank and building society interest from 6 April 2016.

The Personal Savings Allowance will apply for up to £1,000 of a basic rate taxpayer’s savings income, and up to £500 of a higher rate taxpayer’s savings income each year. The Personal Savings Allowance will not be available for additional rate taxpayers.

Dividend Tax Allowance and rates of tax

The government will abolish the dividend tax credit from 6 April 2016 and introduce a new Dividend Tax Allowance of £5,000 a year.

The new rates of tax on dividend income above the allowance will be 7.5% for basic rate taxpayers, 32.5% for higher rate taxpayers and 38.1% for additional rate taxpayers. While these rates remain below the main rates of income tax, those who receive significant dividend income, for example as a result of receiving dividends through a close company, will pay more.

Comment

The government expects these changes to reduce the incentive to incorporate and remunerate through dividends rather than through wages to reduce tax liabilities.

The government also gives an example of a person who receives significant dividend income ‘due to very large shareholdings (typically more than £140,000)’ having to pay a higher rate of tax. It is unclear what this means.

Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)

In 2015/16 the overall ISA savings limit is £15,240.

From 6 April 2016 the government will introduce the Innovative Finance ISA, for loans arranged via a peer to peer (P2P) platform. A public consultation has been launched on whether to extend the list of ISA eligible investments to include debt securities and equity offered via a crowd funding platform.

It was announced in the March Budget that regulations would be introduced in autumn 2015, following consultation on technical detail, to enable ISA savers to withdraw and replace money from their cash ISA without it counting towards their annual ISA subscription limit for that year. This change will have effect from 6 April 2016.

Help to Buy ISA

The government announced the introduction of a new type of ISA in the March Budget, the Help to Buy ISA, which will provide a tax free savings account for first time buyers wishing to save for a home.

The scheme will provide a government bonus to each person who has saved into a Help to Buy ISA at the point they use their savings to purchase their first home. For every £200 a first time buyer saves, the government will provide a £50 bonus up to a maximum bonus of £3,000 on £12,000 of savings.

The government has now announced that Help to Buy ISAs will be available for first time buyers to start saving into from 1 December 2015. First time buyers will be able to open their Help to Buy ISA accounts with an additional one off deposit of £1,000.

Tax-Free Childcare scheme

The Tax-Free Childcare scheme will provide relief for 20% of the costs of childcare. The maximum relief will be £2,000 per child per year or £4,000 for disabled children. The scheme was scheduled to be launched in autumn 2015 but the launch date has been deferred to early 2017.

The current system of employer supported childcare will continue to be available for current members if they wish to remain in it or they can switch to the new scheme. Employer supported childcare will continue to be open to new joiners until the new scheme is available.

Employers’ workplace nurseries won’t be affected by the introduction of Tax-Free Childcare.

Comment

The scheme has been delayed due to a court case taken by some childcare voucher providers. The legal issues have now been resolved in favour of the government. So those people who are unable to use the current employer supported childcare scheme, such as the self-employed, will have to wait a bit longer to get support with childcare costs.

Free childcare

From September 2017 the free childcare entitlement will be doubled from 15 hours to 30 hours a week for working parents of 3 and 4 year olds. The government will implement this extension of free hours early in some local areas from September 2016. This free childcare is worth around £5,000 a year per child.

Restricting loan interest relief for ‘buy to let’ landlords

The government will restrict the amount of income tax relief landlords can get on residential property finance costs to the basic rate of income tax. Finance costs include mortgage interest, interest on loans to buy furnishings and fees incurred when taking out or repaying mortgages or loans. No relief is available for capital repayments of a mortgage or loan.

Landlords will no longer be able to deduct all of their finance costs from their property income. They will instead receive a basic rate reduction from their income tax liability for their finance costs. To give landlords time to adjust, the government will introduce this change gradually from April 2017, over four years.

The restriction in the relief will be phased in as follows:

  • in 2017/18, the deduction from property income will be restricted to 75% of finance costs, with the remaining 25% being available as a basic rate tax reduction
  • in 2018/19, 50% finance costs deduction and 50% given as a basic rate tax reduction
  • in 2019/20, 25% finance costs deduction and 75% given as a basic rate tax reduction
  • from 2020/21, all financing costs incurred by a landlord will be given as a basic rate tax reduction.

This restriction will not apply to landlords of furnished holiday lettings.

Comment

The restrictions on loan interest will be an unwelcome development for landlords paying higher or additional rate of tax. For many investors, the restriction on loan interest relief will materially alter their attitude to the amount of debt taken on.

Other changes to property taxation

From April 2016 the government will:

  • replace the Wear and Tear Allowance with a new relief that allows all residential landlords to deduct the actual costs of replacing furnishings. Capital allowances will continue to apply for landlords of furnished holiday lets.
  • increase the level of Rent-a-Room relief from £4,250 to £7,500 per annum.

Pensions – restriction on tax relief

The Annual Allowance provides an annual limit on tax relieved pension savings. It is currently £40,000. From April 2016 the government will introduce a taper to the Annual Allowance for those with adjusted annual incomes, including their own and employer’s pension contributions, over £150,000. For every £2 of adjusted income over £150,000, an individual’s Annual Allowance will be reduced by £1, down to a minimum of £10,000.

The government also wants to make sure that the right incentives are in place to encourage saving into pensions in the longer term. The government is therefore consulting on whether there is a case for reforming pensions tax relief.

 

Business Tax

Corporation tax rates

From 1 April 2015 the main rate of corporation tax is 20% and it is proposed that this rate will continue for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2016. The main rate of corporation tax will then be reduced as follows:

  • 19% for the Financial Years beginning on 1 April 2017, 1 April 2018 and 1 April 2019
  • 18% for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2020.

Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)

The AIA provides a 100% deduction for the cost of most plant and machinery (not cars) purchased by a business, up to an annual limit and is available to most businesses.

The maximum amount of the AIA was increased to £500,000 from 1 April 2014 for companies or 6 April 2014 for unincorporated businesses until 31 December 2015. However it was due to return to £25,000 after this date. The level of the maximum AIA will now be set permanently at £200,000 for all qualifying investment in plant and machinery made on or after 1 January 2016.

Where a business has a chargeable period which spans 1 January 2016 there are transitional rules for calculating the maximum AIA for that period. The maximum amount for the transitional period is the total of the time apportioned maximum AIA of £500,000 from the start of the chargeable period to 31 December 2015 plus the time apportioned maximum AIA of £200,000 from 1 January 2016 to the end of the chargeable period. However any AIA available on expenditure in the second period would be limited to the time apportioned maximum in that period.

Corporation tax relief for business goodwill

Where a company acquires goodwill or intangible assets, which are recognised in the accounts, a corporation tax deduction is available for the charge to profit and loss when the assets are written off. This deduction is only available on the acquisition of a business and not on the acquisition of shares in a company.

For acquisitions of goodwill and customer related intangibles made on or after 8 July 2015 this relief will no longer be available. In addition, there will be restrictions on the treatment of any allowable losses realised on subsequent disposals of goodwill or customer related intangibles which were acquired on or after 8 July 2015. There are no restrictions where a profit is made on a subsequent disposal.

Corporation tax payment dates

The government will introduce earlier dates for the payment of corporation tax for larger companies and groups, for accounting periods starting on or after 1 April 2017. For companies with annual taxable profits of £20 million or more, tax will be payable in quarterly instalments in the third, sixth, ninth and twelfth months of their accounting period. For groups the threshold is divided by the number of companies in the group.

Tax-advantaged venture capital schemes

This Budget also announces that the government will make amendments to the tax-advantaged venture capital schemes to ensure that the UK continues to offer significant and well-targeted support for investment into small and growing companies, with a particular focus on innovative companies.

 

Capital Taxes

Capital gains tax (CGT) rates and annual exemption

No changes have been announced in respect of CGT rates or the annual exemption.

Inheritance tax (IHT) nil rate band

The IHT nil rate band is currently frozen at £325,000 until April 2018. This is to remain frozen until April 2021.

IHT and the main residence nil rate band

An additional nil rate band is to be introduced where a residence is passed on death to direct descendants such as a child or a grandchild. This will initially be £100,000 in 2017/18, rising to £125,000 in 2018/19, £150,000 in 2019/20, and £175,000 in 2020/21. It will then increase in line with CPI from 2021/22 onwards. The additional band can only be used in respect of one residential property which has, at some point, been a residence of the deceased.

Any unused nil rate band may be transferred to a surviving spouse or civil partner. It will also be available when a person downsizes or ceases to own a home on or after 8 July 2015 and assets of an equivalent value, up to the value of the additional nil rate band, are passed on death to direct descendants. This element will be the subject of a technical consultation and will be legislated for in Finance Bill 2016.

There will also be a tapered withdrawal of the additional nil rate band for estates with a net value (after deducting any liabilities but before reliefs and exemptions) of more than £2 million. This will be at a withdrawal rate of £1 for every £2 over this threshold.

The current tax position of the non UK domicile

A UK resident and domiciled individual is taxed on worldwide income and gains. Non UK domiciles who are UK resident are currently able to claim the remittance basis of taxation in respect of foreign income and gains. This means that they are only taxed if foreign income and gains are brought into the UK. The non UK domicile is also favourably treated for IHT as they only pay IHT in respect of UK assets as opposed to their worldwide assets.

New proposals for non UK domiciles

The government intends to abolish non UK domicile status for certain long term residents from April 2017. This will only apply where an individual has been resident for at least 15 out of the last 20 tax years. Such individuals will be treated as deemed UK domicile for all tax purposes.

In addition, those who had a domicile in the UK at the date of their birth will revert to having a UK domicile for tax purposes whenever they are resident in the UK, even if under general law they have acquired a domicile in another country.

UK residential property held indirectly by non UK domicile persons

The government will legislate to ensure that, from April 2017, IHT is payable on all UK residential property owned by non UK domiciles, regardless of their residence status for tax purposes, including property held indirectly through an offshore structure such as a trust or partnership.

 

Other Matters

Tax lock

The government will legislate to set a ceiling for the main rates of income tax, the standard and reduced rates of VAT, and employer and employee Class 1 NIC rates, ensuring that they cannot rise above their current levels. The tax lock will also ensure that the NIC Upper Earnings Limit cannot rise above the income tax higher rate threshold and will prevent the relevant statutory provisions being used to remove any items from the zero rate of VAT and reduced rate of VAT for the duration of this Parliament.

National Living Wage

The government will introduce a new National Living Wage (NLW) for workers aged 25 and above, by introducing a premium on top of the National Minimum Wage (NMW). From April 2016, the NLW will be set at £7.20 an hour. This rate is 70p higher than the current NMW rate, and 50p above the NMW increase coming into effect in October 2015.

Employment allowance

From April 2016, the government will increase the NIC Employment Allowance from £2,000 to £3,000 a year. The increase will mean that businesses will be able to employ four workers full time on the new National Living Wage (NLW) without paying any NIC.

To ensure that the NIC Employment Allowance is focussed on businesses and charities that support employment, from April 2016, companies where the director is the sole employee will no longer be able to claim the Employment Allowance.

Tax avoidance

A raft of HMRC compliance initiatives are to be launched over the next few years. To quote the Chancellor:

‘We’re boosting HMRC’s capacity with three quarters of a billion pounds of investment to go after tax fraud, offshore trusts and the businesses of the hidden economy, tripling the number of wealthy evaders they pursue for prosecution – raising £7.2 billion in extra tax.’

Tax credits

A number of changes to tax credits and Universal Credit are announced as part of the welfare reforms aimed at reducing the growing expenditure in this area.

Key changes include:

  • From April 2016 the government will reduce the level of earnings at which a household’s tax credits and Universal Credit award starts to be withdrawn for every extra pound earned. There will also be an increase in the taper rate which applies to any excess income further reducing the tax credit award.
  • Limiting the Child Element of both tax credits and Universal Credit to two children so that any subsequent children born after April 2017 will not be eligible for further support. Some claimants will be protected from these changes.
  • Those starting a family after April 2017 will not be eligible for the Family Element in tax credits and equivalent in Universal Credit.

In addition tax credit allowances (with the exception of disability elements) will be frozen

Budget 2015 – An Overview

The Budget 2015

George Osborne presented the final Budget of this Parliament on Wednesday 18 March 2015.

In his speech the Chancellor reported ‘on a Britain that is growing, creating jobs and paying its way’.

Towards the end of 2014 the government issued many proposed clauses of Finance Bill 2015 together with updates on consultations. Due to the dissolution of Parliament on 30 March some measures will be legislated for in the week commencing 23 March, whilst others will be enacted by a Finance Bill in the next Parliament (depending on the result of the General Election).

The Budget proposes further measures, some of which may only come to fruition if the Conservative Party is in power in the next Parliament.

Our summary focuses on the issues likely to affect you, your family and your business. To help you decipher what was announced we have included our own comments. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact us for advice.

Main Budget tax proposals

  • Increased personal allowances
  • The introduction of a new Personal Savings Allowance
  • Changes to ISAs including the introduction of a new type of ISA for First Time Buyers
  • Changes to pensions
  • Potential business rate reform in England
  • Entrepreneur’s Relief – changes to qualifying conditions

The Budget proposals may be subject to amendment in a Finance Act. You should contact us before taking any action as a result of the contents of this summary.

Personal Tax

The personal allowance for 2015/16

For those born after 5 April 1938 the personal allowance will be increased to £10,600. For those born before 6 April 1938 the personal allowance remains at £10,660.

Comment

The reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000 will continue. The reduction is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for 2015/16 there is no personal allowance where adjusted net income exceeds £121,200.

Tax bands and rates for 2015/16

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is being decreased from £31,865 to £31,785 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies will rise from £41,865 to £42,385 for those who are entitled to the full basic personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% is payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Dividend income is taxed at 10% where it falls within the basic rate band and 32.5% where liable at the higher rate of tax. Where income exceeds £150,000, dividends are taxed at 37.5%.

Starting rate of tax for savings income

From 6 April 2015, the maximum amount of an eligible individual’s savings income that can qualify for the starting rate of tax for savings will be increased from £2,880 to £5,000, and this starting rate will be reduced from 10% to 0%. These rates are not available if taxable non-savings income (broadly earnings, pensions, trading profits and property income) exceeds the starting rate limit.

Comment

This will increase the number of savers who are not required to pay tax on savings income, such as bank or building society interest. Eligible savers can register to receive their interest gross using a form R85.

The increase will also provide a useful tax break for director-shareholders who extract their share of profits from a company by taking a low salary and the balance in dividends. This is because dividends are taxed after savings income and thus are not included in the individual’s ‘taxable non-savings income’.

Transferable Tax Allowance

From 6 April 2015 married couples and civil partners may be eligible for a new Transferable Tax Allowance.

The Transferable Tax Allowance will enable spouses and civil partners to transfer a fixed amount of their personal allowance to their spouse. The option to transfer is not available to unmarried couples.

The option to transfer will be available to couples where neither pays tax at the higher or additional rate. If eligible, one partner will be able to transfer 10% of their personal allowance to the other partner which means £1,060 for the 2015/16 tax year.

Comment

For those couples where one person does not use all of their personal allowance the benefit will be up to £212 (20% of £1,060).

Eligible couples can now register their interest for marriage allowance at GOV.UK/marriageallowance. The spouse or partner with the lower income registers their interest in transferring some of their personal allowance by entering some basic details. HMRC will subsequently invite the couple to apply. Those who don’t register their interest will be able to make an application at a later date and still receive the allowance.

The personal allowance and tax bands for 2016/17 and beyond

The personal allowance will be increased to £10,800 in 2016/17 and to £11,000 in 2017/18. The Transferable Tax Allowance will also rise in line with the personal allowance, being 10% of the personal allowance for the year.

The higher rate threshold will rise in line with the personal allowance, taking it to £42,700 in 2016/17 and £43,300 in 2017/18 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

Personal Savings Allowance

The Chancellor announced that legislation will be introduced in a future Finance Bill to apply a Personal Savings Allowance to income such as bank and building society interest from 6 April 2016.

The Personal Savings Allowance will apply for up to £1,000 of a basic rate taxpayer’s savings income, and up to £500 of a higher rate taxpayer’s savings income each year. The Personal Savings Allowance will not be available for additional rate taxpayers.

These changes will have effect from 6 April 2016 and the Personal Savings Allowance will be in addition to the tax advantages currently available to savers from Individual Savings Accounts.

Comment

The Personal Savings Allowance will provide basic and higher rate tax payers with a tax saving of up to £200 each year.

The end of tax deduction at source on interest

Due to the changes to the starting rate for savings and the introduction of a Personal Savings Allowance, many individuals will no longer need to pay tax on their savings income. Currently, 20% income tax is automatically deducted from most interest on savings excluding ISAs.

From April 2016, the automatic deduction of 20% income tax by banks and building societies on non-ISA savings will cease.

Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)

On 1 July 2014 ISAs were reformed and the overall annual subscription limit for these accounts was increased to £15,000 for 2014/15. From 6 April 2015 the overall ISA savings limit will be increased to £15,240.

The Chancellor announced in the Autumn Statement an additional ISA allowance for spouses or civil partners when an ISA saver dies. The additional ISA allowance will be equal to the value of a deceased person’s savings at the time of their death and will be in addition to the normal ISA subscription limit. Regulations will set out the time period within which the additional allowance will be used. In certain circumstances an individual will be able to transfer to their own ISA non-cash assets such as stocks and shares previously held by their spouse.

Comment

In most cases it is envisaged that the additional allowance will be used to subscribe to an ISA offered by the same financial institution that provided the deceased person’s ISA. As the new regulations will allow the transfer of stocks and shares directly into the new ISA, in many cases the effect will be that the investments are left intact and the spouse becomes the new owner of the deceased person’s ISA.

This measure applies for deaths from 3 December 2014 and takes effect from 6 April 2015.

As announced at Budget 2015, regulations will be introduced to extend the list of qualifying investments for ISAs and Child Trust Funds to include listed bonds issued by Co-operative Societies and Community Benefit Societies and SME securities that are admitted to trading on a recognised stock exchange, with effect from 1 July 2015.

The government will also consult during summer 2015 on further extending this list of qualifying investments to include debt securities and equity securities offered via crowd funding platforms.

It was announced at Budget 2015 that regulations will be introduced in autumn 2015, following consultation on technical detail, to enable ISA savers to withdraw and replace money from their cash ISA without it counting towards their annual ISA subscription limit for that year.

At Budget 2014, the Chancellor announced that peer-to-peer loans would be eligible for inclusion within ISAs. The government has consulted on the options for changes to the ISA rules to allow peer-to-peer loans to be held within them.

No start date has been announced.

Comment

Peer-to-peer lending is a small but rapidly growing alternative source of finance for individuals and businesses. The inclusion of such loans in ISAs will increase choice for investors and encourage the growth of the peer-to-peer sector.

Help to Buy ISA

The government has announced the introduction of a new type of ISA, the Help to Buy ISA, which will provide a tax free savings account for first time buyers wishing to save for a home.

The scheme will provide a government bonus to each person who has saved into a Help to Buy ISA at the point they use their savings to purchase their first home. For every £200 a first time buyer saves, the government will provide a £50 bonus up to a maximum bonus of £3,000 on £12,000 of savings.

Help to Buy ISAs will be subject to eligibility rules and limits:

  • An individual will only be eligible for one account throughout the lifetime of the scheme and it is only available to first time buyers.
  • Interest received on the account will be tax free.
  • Savings will be limited to a monthly maximum of £200 with an opportunity to deposit an additional £1,000 when the account is first opened.
  • The government will provide a 25% bonus on the total amount saved including interest, capped at a maximum of £3,000 which is tax free.
  • The bonus will be paid when the first home is purchased.
  • The bonus can only be put towards a first home located in the UK with a purchase value of £450,000 or less in London and £250,000 or less in the rest of the UK.
  • The government bonus can be claimed at any time, subject to a minimum bonus amount of £400.
  • The accounts are limited to one per person rather than one per home so those buying together can both receive a bonus.
  • As is currently the case it will only be possible for an individual to subscribe to one cash ISA per year. It will not be possible for an account holder to subscribe to a Help to Buy ISA with one provider and another cash ISA with a different provider.
  • Once an account is opened there is no limit on how long an individual can save into it and no time limit on when they can use their bonus.

The government intends the Help to Buy ISA scheme to be available from autumn 2015 and investors will be able to open a Help to Buy ISA for a period of four years.

Junior ISA and Child Trust Fund (CTF)

The annual subscription limit for Junior ISA and Child Trust Fund accounts will increase from £4,000 to £4,080.

The government has previously decided that a transfer of savings from a CTF to a Junior ISA should be permitted at the request of the registered contact for the CTF. The government has confirmed the measure will have effect from 6 April 2015.

Bad debt relief on investments made on peer-to-peer lending

The government will introduce a new relief to allow individuals lending through peer-to-peer platforms to offset any losses from loans which go bad against other peer-to-peer income. It will be effective from 6 April 2016 and, through self assessment, will allow individuals to make a claim for relief on losses incurred from 6 April 2015.

Pensions saving

There is an overall limit, known as the lifetime allowance, on the total amount of tax relieved pension savings that an individual can have over their lifetime. The Chancellor has now announced that for tax year 2016/17 onwards:

The standard lifetime allowance will be reduced from £1.25 million to £1 million.

Fixed and individual protection regimes will be introduced alongside the reduction in the lifetime allowance to protect savers who think they may be affected by this change.

The lifetime allowance will be indexed annually in line with CPI from 6 April 2018.

Pensions – changes to access to pension funds

The Taxation of Pensions Act has recently been enacted. It provides that individuals aged 55 or over can access their money purchase pension savings as they choose from 6 April 2015.

In most cases access to the fund will be achieved in one of two ways:

  • Allocation of a pension fund (or part of a pension fund) to a ‘flexi-access drawdown account’ from which any amount can be taken over whatever period the person decides.
  • Taking a single or series of lump sums from a pension fund (known as an ‘uncrystallised funds pension lump sum’).

When an allocation of funds to a flexi-access account is made the member typically will take the opportunity of taking a tax free lump sum from the fund (as under current rules).

The person will then decide how much or how little to take from the flexi-access account. Any amounts that are taken will count as taxable income in the year of receipt.

Access to some or all of a pension fund without first allocating to a flexi-access account can be achieved by taking an uncrystallised funds pension lump sum.

The tax effect will be:

  • 25% is tax free
  • the remainder is taxable as income.

An annuity can, of course, be purchased with some or all of the fund as currently.

Comment

The fundamental tax planning point arising from the changes is self-evident. A person should decide when to access funds depending upon their other income in each tax year.

Pension freedoms to be extended to people with annuities

The Chancellor announced just before the Budget a new flexibility for people who have already purchased an annuity. From April 2016, the government will remove the restrictions on buying and selling existing annuities to allow pensioners to sell the income they receive from their annuity for a capital sum.

Individuals will then have the freedom to take that capital as a lump sum, or place it into drawdown to use the proceeds more gradually.

Income tax at the individuals’ marginal rate will be payable in the year of access to the proceeds.

The proposal will not give the annuity holder the right to sell their annuity back to their original provider. The government has begun a consultation on the measures that are needed to establish a market to buy and sell annuities and who should be permitted to purchase the annuity income.

Comment

The government recognises that for most people retaining their annuity will be the right choice. However, individuals may want to sell an annuity, for instance to pay off debts or to purchase a more flexible pension income product.

Taxation of resident non-domiciles

There will be some changes in the annual charge paid by non-domiciled individuals resident in the UK who wish to retain access to the remittance basis of taxation.

The charge paid by people who have been UK resident for seven out of the last nine years will remain at £30,000. The charge paid by people who have been UK resident for 12 out of the last 14 years will increase from £50,000 to £60,000. A new charge of £90,000 will be introduced for people who have been UK resident for 17 of the last 20 years.

The changes apply for 2015/16.

The government is consulting on making the election to pay the remittance basis charge apply for a minimum of three years.

Business Tax

Corporation tax rates

From 1 April 2015 the main rate of corporation tax, currently 21%, will be reduced to 20%.

As the small profits rate is already 20%, the need for this separate code of taxation disappears. The small profits rate will therefore be unified with the main rate.

It is proposed that the rate of corporation tax will continue at 20% for the financial year beginning on 1 April 2016.

Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)

The AIA provides a 100% deduction for the cost of most plant and machinery (not cars) purchased by a business up to an annual limit and is available to most businesses. Where businesses spend more than the annual limit, any additional qualifying expenditure generally attracts an annual writing down allowance of only 18% or 8% depending on the type of asset.

The maximum annual amount of the AIA was increased to £500,000 from 1 April 2014 for companies or 6 April 2014 for unincorporated businesses until 31 December 2015. However it was due to return to £25,000 after this date. The Chancellor announced that following conversations with business groups this would be addressed in the Autumn Statement and would be set at a much more generous rate.

Research and Development (R&D) tax credits

As previously announced, the government will increase the rate of the ‘above the line’ credit from 10% to 11% and will increase the rate of the SME scheme from 225% to 230% from 1 April 2015.

It is proposed to restrict qualifying expenditure for R&D tax credits from 1 April 2015 so that the costs of consumable items incorporated in products that are sold are not eligible. Following consultation the restriction will not apply where the product of the R&D is transferred as waste, or where it is transferred but no consideration is received.

A new voluntary advance assurance service lasting three years will be introduced for small companies making their first claim from autumn 2015. From 2016 the time taken to process a claim will be reduced. New guidance will be issued by HMRC aimed specifically at smaller companies, backed by a two year publicity strategy to raise awareness of R&D tax credits. HMRC will publish a document in the summer setting out a roadmap for further improvements to the scheme over the next two years.

Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) improvements

At Autumn Statement the government announced it would make a number of changes to the CIS. The aim of the changes is to reduce the administrative burden and related cost burden on construction businesses. The measures should result in more subcontracting businesses being able to achieve and maintain gross payment status, thus improving their cashflow. These changes are to be implemented in stages by the issue of Statutory Instruments.

From 6 April 2015 amendments will be made to the system including:

  • The requirement for a contractor to make a return to HMRC even if the contractor has not made any payments in a tax month is removed.
  • The requirements for joint ventures to gain gross payment status will be relaxed where one member already has this status and where that firm or company has a right to at least 50% of the assets or the income or holds at least 50% of the shares or the voting power in the joint venture.

From 6 April 2016 further changes are proposed:

  • Mandatory online filing of CIS returns will be introduced with the offer of alternative filing arrangements for those unable to access an online channel by reason of age, disability, remote location or religious objection.
  • The directors’ self assessment filing requirements will be removed from the initial and annual compliance tests.
  • The threshold for the turnover test will be reduced to £100,000 in multiple directorship situations.

From 6 April 2017 mandatory online verification of subcontractors will be introduced.

Comment

About two thirds of CIS contractors are also employers who therefore file Real Time Information PAYE returns online. It is no surprise that the government wants to extend the scope of mandatory online filing. The improvements to the online verification process would be welcome but the government is also proposing to remove the option of verifying subcontractors by telephone.

Class 2 National Insurance contributions (NIC)

From 6 April 2015 liability to pay Class 2 NIC will arise at the end of each year. Currently a liability to Class 2 NIC arises on a weekly basis.

The amount of Class 2 NIC due will still be calculated based on the number of weeks of self-employment in the year, but will be determined when the individual completes their self assessment return. It will therefore be paid alongside their income tax and Class 4 NIC. For those who wish to spread the cost of their Class 2 NIC, HMRC will retain a facility for them to make regular payments throughout the year. The current six monthly billing system will cease from 6 April 2015.

Those with profits below a threshold will no longer have to apply in advance for an exception from paying Class 2 NIC. Instead they will have the option to pay Class 2 NIC voluntarily at the end of the year so that they may protect their benefit rights.

The government has announced that Class 2 NIC will be abolished in the next Parliament and will reform Class 4 NIC to include a contributory benefit test. Consultation on these matters will take place later in 2015.

Corporation tax relief for goodwill on incorporation

Corporation tax relief may be available to companies when goodwill and intangible assets are recognised in the financial accounts. Relief is normally given on the cost of the asset as the expenditure is written off in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Practice or at a fixed 4% rate, following an election.

An anti-avoidance measure was announced at Autumn Statement to restrict corporation tax relief. The restriction applies where a company acquires internally-generated goodwill and certain other intangible assets used in a business from ‘related persons’. In particular, related persons includes individuals who are shareholders in the company.

In addition, individuals will be prevented from claiming Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER) on disposals of goodwill when they transfer the business to a related company. Capital gains tax will be payable on the gain at the normal rates of 18% or 28% rather than 10%. Following consultation, the legislation will be revised to allow ER to be claimed by partners in a firm who do not hold or acquire any stake in the successor company.

These measures apply to all transfers on or after 3 December 2014 unless made pursuant to an unconditional obligation entered into before that date.

Comment

Prior to this announcement it was possible, for example, on incorporation of a sole trader’s business to a company which is owned by the sole trader, for the company to obtain corporation tax relief on the market value of goodwill at the time of incorporation. The disposal by the sole trader would qualify for a low rate of capital gains tax.

The government considers this is unfair to a business that has always operated as a company.

Diverted profits tax

At Autumn Statement, a new tax to counter the use of aggressive tax planning techniques by multinational enterprises to divert profits from the UK was announced. Legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2015 for a new Diverted Profits Tax using a proposed rate of 25% to apply from 1 April 2015.

Farmers averaging

The government will extend the period over which self-employed farmers can average their profits for income tax purposes from two years to five years. A consultation will be held later this year and the legislation to be introduced in a future Finance Bill will come into effect from 6 April 2016.

Changes to venture capital schemes

The government will make amendments to the Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS), Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS), and Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs).

The government will, subject to EU State aid approval:

  • Require that companies must be less than 12 years old when receiving their first EIS or VCT investment, except where the investment will lead to a substantial change in the company’s activity.
  • Introduce a cap on total investment received under the tax-advantaged venture capital schemes of £15 million, increasing to £20 million for knowledge-intensive companies.
  • Increase the employee limit for knowledge-intensive companies to 499 employees, from the current limit of 249 employees.

The government will encourage the transition from SEIS to the other venture capital schemes by removing the requirement that 70% of the funds raised under SEIS must have been spent before EIS or VCT funding can be raised.

Business rates – England

Shortly before the Budget the government launched a wide-ranging review of national business rates in England.

The review, set to report back by Budget 2016, will examine the structure of the current system. The review will look at how businesses use property and how to modernise the system so it better reflects changes in the value of property.

Employment Taxes

Employer provided cars

The scale of charges for working out the taxable benefit for an employee who has use of an employer provided car are now announced well in advance. Most cars are taxed by reference to bands of CO2 emissions. The percentage applied to each band has typically gone up by 1% each year with an overriding maximum charge of 35% of the list price of the car. From 6 April 2015 the percentage applied by each band goes up by 2% and the maximum charge is increased to 37%.

From 6 April 2016 there will be a further 2% increase in the percentage applied by each band with similar increases in 2017/18 and 2018/19. For 2019/20 the rate will increase by a further 3%. The 3% diesel supplement will be removed from 6 April 2016.

Comment

These increases may discourage businesses from retaining the same car. New cars will often have lower CO2 emissions than the equivalent model purchased by the employer, say three years earlier.

Zero emission vans

The van benefit charge exemption for zero emission vans is to be phased out from 6 April 2015. For 2015/16 a charge will apply equal to 20% of the normal van benefit charge. This will increase by a further 20% each year over the next three years up to 2018/19 and by a further 10% in 2019/20. From 6 April 2020 a normal 100% van benefit charge will apply to zero emission vans.

Comment

The charge for a zero emission van for 2015/16 will therefore be £630 (£3,150 x 20%).

Employer National Insurance contributions (NIC) for the under 21s

From 6 April 2015 employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 will be reduced from the normal rate of 13.8% to 0%. For the 0% rate to apply the employee will need to be under 21 when the earnings are paid.

This exemption will not apply to earnings above the Upper Secondary Threshold (UST) in a pay period. The weekly UST is £815 for 2015/16 which is equivalent to £42,385 per annum. Employers will be liable to 13.8% NIC beyond this limit.

Comment

The UST is a new term introduced for this new NIC exemption. It is set at the same amount as the Upper Earnings Limit, which is the amount at which employees’ NIC fall from 12% to 2%.

NIC for apprentices under 25

The government will abolish employer NIC up to the UST for apprentices aged under 25. This will come into effect from 6 April 2016.

Comment

Detailed regulations will be issued on the NIC for apprentices including the definition of an apprentice.

NIC Employment Allowance

The Employment Allowance was introduced from 6 April 2014. It is an annual allowance of up to £2,000 which is available to many employers and can be offset against their employer NIC liability.

The government will extend the annual £2,000 Employment Allowance for employer NIC to householders who employ care and support workers. This will come into effect from 6 April 2015.

Review of employee benefits

In 2014 the Office of Tax Simplification published recommendations on the tax treatment of employee benefits in kind and expenses. In response the government has issued draft legislation on four areas:

  • From 6 April 2015 there will be a statutory exemption for certain non-cash benefits in kind costing up to £50. An annual cap of £300 will be introduced for office holders of close companies and employees who are family members of those office holders. Those affected by this cap will be able to receive a maximum of £300 worth of trivial benefits in kind each year exempt from tax.
  • From 6 April 2016 the £8,500 threshold below which employees do not pay income tax on certain benefits in kind will be removed. There will be new exemptions for carers and ministers of religion.
  • From 6 April 2016 there will be no tax liability on an employee for certain reimbursed expenses. This will replace the current system where employers have to apply for a dispensation to avoid having to report non-taxable expenses (on forms P11D). Also employees will automatically get the tax relief they are due on qualifying expenses payments.
  • HMRC will be able to issue Regulations to allow employers to include taxable benefits in pay and thus account for PAYE on the benefits. Employers will therefore not have to include these items on forms P11D.

Overarching contracts of employment and temporary workers

The use of overarching contracts of employment by employment intermediaries such as ‘umbrella companies’ can result in workers obtaining tax relief for home to work travel that would not ordinarily be available.

From April 2016 the government will change the rules to restrict travel and subsistence relief for workers engaged through an employment intermediary, such as an umbrella company or a personal service company, and under the supervision, direction and control of the end-user.

Capital Taxes

Capital gains tax (CGT) rates

The current rates of CGT are 18% to the extent that any income tax basic rate band is available and 28% thereafter. The rate for disposals qualifying for Entrepreneurs’ Relief is 10% with a lifetime limit of £10 million for each individual.

CGT annual exemption

The CGT annual exemption will increase to £11,100 for 2015/16.

CGT – Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER)

Gains which are eligible for ER, but which are deferred into investments which qualify for the Enterprise Investment Scheme or Social Investment Tax Relief can now remain eligible for ER when the gain is realised. This applies to qualifying ER gains on disposals on or after 3 December 2014 which are deferred into either scheme.

CGT – Restricting ER

ER will not be available to reduce CGT on gains which accrue on personally owned assets used in a trading business carried on by a company or a partnership, unless they are disposed of in connection with a disposal of at least a 5% shareholding in the company, or a 5% share in the partnership assets. This measure will affect disposals on and after 18 March 2015.

Comment

To obtain ER on a personally owned asset used in a trading company or partnership there has to be a genuine withdrawal from participation in the company or partnership. The measure therefore clarifies what is allowed for a valid ER claim to be made.

CGT – ER on joint ventures and partnerships

Amendments are to be made for ER purposes to the definition of a trading company or holding company of a trading group. This will be determined by reference to that company’s own activities (or the activities of the group.)

The aim is to exclude the activities carried on by joint venture companies in which a company is invested, or of partnerships of which a company is a member. Therefore a company will need to have a significant trade of its own in order to be considered as a trading company. It does not, however, affect shareholdings in companies whose investment in a joint venture is part of their own trade. This measure will affect disposals on and after 18 March 2015.

CGT – non-residents and UK residential property

Following consultation the government has confirmed that from 6 April 2015 non-UK resident individuals, trusts, personal representatives and narrowly controlled companies will be subject to CGT on gains accruing on the disposal of UK residential property on or after that date. Non-resident individuals will be subject to tax at the same rates as UK taxpayers (28% or 18% on gains above the annual exemption). Non-resident companies will be subject to tax at the same rates as UK corporates (20%).

CGT – Principal Private Residence Relief (PPR)

The government has decided that some changes are required to the rules determining the circumstances when a property can benefit from PPR. The changes will apply to both a UK resident disposing of a residence in another country and a non-resident disposing of a UK residence.

From 6 April 2015 a person’s residence will not be eligible for PPR for a tax year unless either:

  • the person making the disposal was resident in the same country as the property for that tax year, or
  • the person spent at least 90 midnights in that property.

Comment

The main point of the changes to the PPR rules is to remove the ability of an individual who is resident in, say, France with a property in the UK as well as France to nominate the UK property as having the benefit of PPR. Any gain on the French property is not subject to UK tax anyway and, without changes to the PPR rules, the gain on the UK property could be removed by making a PPR election.

The good news is that the latest proposals retain the ability of a UK resident with two UK residences to nominate which of those properties has the benefit of PPR.

Changes to the tax treatment of pension funds on death

If an individual has not bought an annuity, a defined contribution pension fund remains available to pass on to selected beneficiaries. Inheritance tax (IHT) can be avoided by making a ‘letter of wishes’ to the pension provider suggesting to whom the funds should be paid. However, currently there are other tax charges to reflect the principle that income tax relief would have been given on contributions into the pension fund and therefore some tax should be payable when the fund is paid out. In some situations tax at 55% of the fund value is payable.

The government has introduced significant exceptions from the tax charges (in the Taxation of Pensions Act). Generally the changes take effect where the first payment to a beneficiary is on or after 6 April 2015.

Under the new system, anyone who dies under the age of 75 will be able to give their remaining defined contribution pension fund to anyone completely tax free, whether it is in a drawdown account or untouched. This is subject to the condition that the fund is transferred into the names of chosen beneficiaries within two years. The fund can be paid out as a lump sum to a beneficiary or monies taken out of the fund by the beneficiary when required.

Those aged 75 or over when they die will also be able to pass their defined contribution pension fund to any beneficiary who will then be able to draw down on it as income whenever they wish. They will pay tax at their marginal rate of income tax when the income is received. Beneficiaries will also have the option of receiving the fund as a lump sum payment, subject to a tax charge of 45%.

Changes to the tax treatment of annuities on death

Draft legislation has been issued which changes the tax treatment when an annuity continues to be paid after death. The changes mirror the changes to the treatment of pension funds passing to beneficiaries on death. For example beneficiaries of individuals who die under the age of 75 with a joint life or guaranteed term annuity will be able to receive any future payments from such policies tax free.

The changes apply where the first payment to a beneficiary is on or after 6 April 2015.

Inheritance tax and deeds of variation

The government will review the uses of deeds of variation as these can currently be used to avoid IHT charges.

Other Matters

Digital tax accounts

The government has announced some initiatives to ‘transform the tax system over the next Parliament’ by introducing digital tax accounts and removing the need for annual tax returns. A digital tax account will enable individuals and small businesses to see and manage their tax affairs online. As a first step, the government will:

  • publish a roadmap later this year setting out the policy and administrative changes needed to implement this reform
  • introduce digital tax accounts for five million small businesses and the ten million individuals by early 2016.

Gift Aid

It is proposed to increase the annual donation amount which can be claimed through the Gift Aid Small Donations Scheme to £8,000. This will allow charities and Community Amateur Sports Clubs to claim Gift Aid style top-up payments of up to £2,000 a year, with effect from April 2016.

VAT help for certain charities

As announced at Autumn Statement 2014 hospice, search and rescue and air ambulance charities will be eligible for VAT refunds from 1 April 2015. The Chancellor has now announced that blood bike charities will also be included.

Tax evasion

The government will toughen sanctions for those who evade tax by closing early the existing disclosure facilities. For example the Liechtenstein Disclosure Facility will close at the end of 2015, instead of April 2016. A tougher ‘last chance’ disclosure facility will be offered between 2016 and mid-2017, with penalties of at least 30% on top of tax owed and interest and with no immunity from criminal prosecutions in appropriate cases.

Tax avoidance

The government will introduce tougher measures for those who persistently enter into tax avoidance schemes that fail, and will develop further measures to publish the names of such avoiders and to tackle avoiders who repeatedly abuse reliefs.

Specific anti-avoidance measures

  • The government will introduce legislation, effective from 18 March 2015, to prevent companies from obtaining a tax advantage by entering contrived arrangements to turn historic tax losses of restricted use into more versatile in-year deductions.
  • Measures will be introduced to prevent partly exempt VAT businesses taking account of foreign branches when calculating how much VAT on overhead costs they can reclaim in the UK. This will take effect from 1 August 2015.
  • The government will introduce legislation, with effect from 26 February 2015, to clarify the effect of capital allowances anti-avoidance rules where there are transactions between connected parties or sale and leaseback transactions.

This summary is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the main proposals announced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in his Budget Statement, and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this summary can be accepted by the authors or the firm.

Newsletter – March 2012

eNEWS – March 2012

In this month’s enews we report on the Budget. You may have already read some information following Budget Day but we have included details of the key announcements.

Please contact us if you would like any further information.

 

 

Budget 2012

George Osborne presented his third Budget on Wednesday 21 March 2012.

The Chancellor started by reaffirming the need for stability in the UK economy and finished in Churchillian style with phrases such as:

‘No people will strive as the British will strive.’

‘No country will adapt as the British will adapt.’

‘This country borrowed its way into trouble. Now we’re going to earn our way out.’

The main Budget proposals announced are:

  • A further increase in the personal allowance but with a reduction in the basic rate band from April 2013.
  • A reduction in the additional rate of income tax from 50% to 45% from April 2013.
  • A phasing out of the age related personal allowances.
  • Details of how Child Benefit will be taxed on those with income in excess of £50,000.
  • An additional 1% cut in the main rate of corporation tax to 24% from April 2012.
  • Increased Stamp Duty Land Tax on high value residential properties.

Details of the announcements and supporting documentation can be found on the Treasury website using the link below.

Internet link: Treasury Website Budget page

Increased personal allowance for 2012/13

For those aged under 65 the personal allowance will be increased by £630 to £8,105. This increase is greater than the minimum required and is part of the plan of the government to ultimately raise the allowance to £10,000.

The personal allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 of adjusted net income over £100,000. So for 2012/13, the allowance ceases at adjusted net income in excess of £116,210.

Tax band and rates 2012/13

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is being reduced to £34,370 so that the threshold at which the 40% higher rate of tax applies will remain at £42,475.

The 50% additional rate of tax currently applies where taxable income exceeds £150,000.

If dividend income is part of total income this is taxed at 10% where it falls within the basic rate band, 32.5% where liable at the higher rate of tax and 42.5% where liable to the additional rate of tax.

Changes for 2013/14

The personal allowance is to increase to £9,205. The band of income taxable at this rate is being reduced to £32,245 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies will reduce to £41,450.

For 2013/14 the 20% basic rate and 40% higher tax rates remain unchanged. However the 50% additional rate tax will be reduced to 45%. A rate of 37.5% will be payable on dividends liable to the additional rate of tax.

There had been widespread speculation that the 50% top rate of tax would be abolished.

Internet link: HMRC Budget information

Age allowances

It was announced in the Budget that from 2013/14 the higher age related personal allowances will not be increased and their availability will be restricted to people born on or before:

  • 5 April 1948 for the £10,500 allowance
  • 5 April 1938 for the £10,660 allowance.

This has been labelled the ‘granny tax’ by many as the increased allowances will no longer be available to those reaching age 65 and 75 respectively.

Internet link: HMRC Budget information

Child Benefit

Legislation will be introduced to impose a new charge on a taxpayer who has adjusted net income over £50,000 in a tax year where either they or their partner are in receipt of Child Benefit for the year. Where both partners have adjusted net income in excess of £50,000 the charge will apply to the partner with the higher income.

The income tax charge will apply at a rate of 1% of the full Child Benefit award for each £100 of income between £50,000 and £60,000. The charge on taxpayers with income above £60,000 will be equal to the amount of Child Benefit paid.

Child Benefit claimants will be able to decide not to receive Child Benefit if they or their partner do not wish to pay the new charge.

This charge will have effect from 7 January 2013 and for 2012/13 will apply to the Child Benefit paid from that date to the end of the tax year. The income taken into account will be the full income for 2012/13.

The removal of Child Benefit from households containing a higher rate taxpayer had been announced previously. However the detail of the way in which the restriction would apply had been subject to speculation. The following HMRC example shows how the charge will be calculated:

The Child Benefit for two children amounts to £1,752 and the taxpayer’s adjusted net income is £54,000.

The income tax charge will be £700.80 which is calculated as £17.52 for every £100 above £50,000.

For a taxpayer with adjusted net income of £60,000 or above the income tax charge will equal the Child Benefit.

Internet link: HMRC Budget information

Corporation tax rates

A further reduction in the main rate of corporation tax has been announced. The planned 1% decrease announced to take effect from 1 April 2012 is now to be a 2% decrease with the rate moving from 26% to 24%. Further 1% reductions to 23% and 22% are to take place from 1 April 2013 and 1 April 2014 respectively. The small company rate will remain at 20%.

Internet link: HMRC Budget information

Stamp duty land tax (SDLT)

A new rate of 7% will be introduced where the chargeable consideration for a residential property is more than £2 million. This will have effect where the effective date (normally the date of completion) is on or after 22 March 2012, unless the contract was entered into before that date.

An even higher rate of 15% will apply to such residential properties if the purchaser is a ‘non natural person’, for example a company. This will have effect where the effective date of the transaction is on or after 21 March 2012.

In addition the government will consult on the introduction of:

  • a SDLT annual charge where properties over £2 million are owned by non natural persons
  • a CGT charge on residential property owned by non resident, non natural persons.

Both these measures will apply from April 2013.

The intention of the 15% charge is to stop or reduce the number of schemes which claim to allow a property to be transferred without SDLT. The charges to be introduced in 2013 are aimed at charging properties already in companies which are used as residential accommodation.

Internet link: HMRC SDLT Budget changes

Employer end of year forms

HMRC are reminding employers that in order to avoid penalties they must file the Employer Annual Return (P35 and P14s) online and on time. The vast majority of employers must file electronically and the deadline for submission of the forms is 19 May 2012 which this year falls on a Saturday.

To avoid unnecessary late filing penalty notices being issued, where no return is necessary, it is important to advise HMRC that no return is due. This can be done using the link below.

If you are unsure whether you need to complete a return this year please do get in touch.

Internet links: HMRC guidance No P35 online form

Reimbursing additional household expenses

From 6 April 2012 HMRC are increasing the guideline rate which employers can use to reimburse employees for additional household expenses incurred because they have to work from home to £4 per week (currently £3 a week). To find out more about the circumstances when these expenses can be reimbursed please do get in touch.

Internet link: HMRC expenses and benefits

Advisory fuel rates for company cars

New company car advisory fuel rates have been published to take effect from 1 March 2012. HMRC’s website states:

‘These rates apply to all journeys on or after 1 March 2012 until further notice. For one month from the date of change, employers may use either the previous or new current rates, as they choose. Employers may therefore make or require supplementary payments if they so wish, but are under no obligation to do either.’

The advisory fuel rates for journeys undertaken on or after 1 March 2012 are:

Engine size Petrol Diesel LPG
1400cc or less 15p   10p
1401cc – 2000cc 18p   12p
Over 2000cc 26p   18p
1600cc or less   13p*  
1601cc – 2000cc   15p  
Over 2000cc   19p*  

Please note that only two of the diesel rates have changed. These two rates marked * have both increased by one pence per mile.

Other points to be aware of about the advisory fuel rates:

  • Employers do not need a dispensation to use these rates.
  • Employees driving employer provided cars are not entitled to use these rates to claim tax relief if employers reimburse them at lower rates. Such claims should be based on the actual costs incurred.
  • The advisory rates are not binding where an employer can demonstrate that the cost of business travel in employer provided cars is higher than the guideline mileage rates. The higher cost would need to be agreed with HMRC under a dispensation.

If you would like to discuss your car policy, please contact us.

Internet link: HMRC fuel advisory rates

Updated guidance on Gift Aid and new declarations

HMRC have updated their guidance on Gift Aid declarations and provided new model declarations. They have also developed a new checklist of the minimum information to be included in a declaration if a charity decides to create and use its own declaration form.

Internet link: HMRC Charities Gift Aid

National Minimum Wage rates

The government has accepted the Low Pay Commission’s recommendations for National Minimum Wage rates from 1 October 2012.

From 1 October 2012:

  • the adult minimum wage rate will increase from £6.08 to £6.19 an hour
  • the youth development rate will remain at £4.98 an hour
  • the 16-17 year old rate will remain at £3.68 an hour and
  • the apprentice rate will increase from £2.60 to £2.65 an hour.

The Chair of the Low Pay Commission David Norgrove said:

‘Our recommendations this year are, as ever, based on extensive economic evidence and take account of the prospects for the UK economy. Although the economy is forecast to grow through 2012 and 2013, the expected pace of growth is uncertain and is likely to be low. We believe our recommendations for October 2012 balance the needs of low-paid workers against the challenges facing businesses, particularly small businesses.’

Internet link: Press release

National Loan Guarantee Scheme

The Chancellor George Osborne has launched the National Loan Guarantee Scheme (NLGS), which is designed to help ‘smaller businesses’ across the UK access cheaper finance. The loans will be available to businesses with an annual group turnover of up to £50 million.

According to the press release:

‘The government is using the UK’s budget credibility in financial markets to provide up to £20 billion of government guarantees on unsecured borrowing by banks, enabling them to borrow at a cheaper rate. Around £5 billion in guarantees will be made available in the first tranche.’

Businesses that take out an NLGS loan will receive a discount of 1% compared to the interest rate that they would otherwise have received from that bank outside the scheme.

George Osborne said:

‘The government promised to help small businesses get access to lower interest rates. Today, we deliver on that promise with a nationwide scheme. It’s only because we’ve earned credibility with our deficit reduction plan that we have low interest rates, and it’s only because of this scheme that we can pass the benefits of those low rates onto businesses.’

Internet link: Press release

Newsletter – March 2011

In this month’s enews we report on several employment related issues. Please browse through the articles and get in touch if you have any further queries or would like more information.

 

 

Budget Statement

George Osborne presented his second Budget on Wednesday 23 March 2011.

In his statement he said that the ‘Budget is about reforming the nation’s economy, so that we have enduring growth and jobs in the future’.

The Main Budget proposals

The government had previously announced changes which apply from April 2011. However the Statement also included several new announcements, some of the more significant of which are set out below:

An additional 1% cut in the main rate of corporation tax to 26% from April 2011.

  • Enhanced tax incentives for investment in higher risk companies and for SMEs investing in research and development.
  • Reintroduction of Enterprise Zones.
  • Entrepreneurs’ Relief limit doubled to £10 million.
  • An increase in the mileage rate payable to own car drivers.
  • Consultation on integrating income tax and national insurance contributions.
  • Reduced inheritance tax rates for those giving one tenth of their estate to charity.

Some of these items are covered in more detail in the following articles. To access the full Budget information visit the Treasury website using the link below.

Internet link: Treasury Website Budget

Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS) and Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs)

EIS and VCTs are designed to encourage private individuals to invest in smaller unquoted trading companies which may be perceived as higher risk. While the EIS requires an investment to be made directly into the shares of the company, VCTs operate by indirect investment through a mediated fund.

Currently EIS investors may be given income tax relief at 20% on their investments of up to £500,000 a year. Legislation will be introduced to increase the rate of tax relief to 30% for shares issued on or after 6 April 2011, subject to State aid approval.

Future changes

Subject to State aid approval, legislation will be introduced to make the following changes to the EIS and for shares issued on or after 6 April 2012.

The thresholds for the size of the company which may benefit from both types of investment will be increased to fewer than 250 employees and £15 million gross assets before the investment.

The annual amount which can be invested in an individual company is to rise to £10 million.

The annual amount that an individual can invest through EIS is to increase to £1 million.

Internet link: Budget TIIN

Corporation tax rates

Legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2011 to reduce the main rate of corporation tax from 28% to 26% for the Financial Year commencing 1 April 2011 and then to 25% for the Financial Year commencing 1 April 2012. The main rate of corporation tax generally applies to companies with profits of more than £1.5 million. It had previously been announced that the main rate would reduce from 28% to 27% followed by further 1% graduated reductions until it reached 24% by 1 April 2014. Instead the main rate is set to reduce to 23% by 1 April 2014.

The small profits rate of corporation tax, which generally applies to companies with up to £300,000 of profits, is to reduce from 21% to 20% also with effect from 1 April 2011. This had already been announced.

The effective marginal corporation tax rate for profits between £300,000 and £1.5 million will be 27.5% from 1 April 2011.

Internet link: Budget TIIN

Approved mileage allowance payments (AMAP)

The AMAP rates can be used to claim the cost of business mileage in an employee’s own vehicle. The rates cover cars, vans, motorcycles and bicycles. Where an employer pays less than the published rates, employees can make a claim for tax relief for the shortfall.

With effect from 6 April 2011 the rate of the AMAP for cars and vans will be increased from 40p per mile to 45p per mile for the first 10,000 miles of business travel in the tax year. The rate for mileage above 10,000 miles will remain at 25p per mile.

This may mean that drivers receiving mileage allowances in excess of the AMAP will see a reduction in their tax and NICs liability. For those drivers who receive less than the AMAP their claim for tax relief on the shortfall will be increased.

An allowance for passenger payments currently in place for employees at 5p per passenger per mile will be extended to volunteers who carry passengers as part of their volunteering duties. This extension will apply with effect from 6 April 2011.

Internet link: Budget TIIN

Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER)

ER was introduced in April 2008. Subject to satisfying certain conditions, including the current lifetime limit of £5 million, capital gains on qualifying business disposals by individuals and certain trustees are eligible for ER. Qualifying gains are liable to CGT at 10%.

The lifetime limit is applied to the aggregate of gains that benefit from ER, whatever the year in which the disposal took place. Any gains in excess of the lifetime limit are liable to CGT at the same rates as other chargeable gains.

The lifetime limit will increase to £10 million with effect for qualifying business disposals on or after 6 April 2011.

Where individuals or trustees make qualifying gains above the £5m limit before 6 April 2011, no additional relief will be allowed for the excess.

Internet link: Budget TIIN

Research and Development (R&D) Tax Credits

Subject to State aid approval, legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2011 to increase the rate of the additional deduction for expenditure on R&D for companies that are small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 75% to 100% for expenditure incurred on or after 1 April 2011, giving a total deduction of 200%. The rate of Vaccine Research Relief for SMEs will be reduced to 20% from the same date.

The government also plans to introduce further changes subject to consultation and State aid approval in Finance Bill 2012 in respect of expenditure incurred on or after 1 April 2012 as follows:

  • to abolish the rule limiting a company’s payable R&D tax credit to the amount of PAYE and NICs it pays
  • to abolish the £10,000 minimum expenditure condition
  • to change the rules governing the provision of relief for work done by subcontractors under the large company scheme
  • to increase the rate of the additional deduction for expenditure on R&D for SMEs by a further 25% to give a total deduction of 225%
  • Vaccine Research Relief will not be available for SMEs.

Internet link: Budget TIIN

Enterprise Zones

The government announced the location of ten new urban Enterprise Zones within the following Local Enterprise Partnership areas: Birmingham and Solihull; Leeds City Region; Sheffield City Region; Liverpool City Region; Greater Manchester; West of England; Tees Valley; North Eastern; the Black Country; and Derby, Derbyshire, Nottingham and Nottinghamshire. In addition, London will have an Enterprise Zone and be able to choose its site.

The government will make a range of policy tools available to all zones including:

  • a 100% business rate discount worth up to £275,000 over a five year period for businesses that move into an Enterprise Zone during the course of this Parliament
  • government and local authority help to develop radically simplified planning approaches in the zone.

It will consider, in a limited number of cases, the scope for introducing enhanced capital allowances.

Internet link: Treasury Budget document

£1.3 million tax credits identity thief jailed

Olaide (John) Taiwo, aged 35, has been jailed for his part in stealing the identities of at least 350 people and using the identities to submit over 300 fraudulent tax credit claims.

A woman who also took part in the fraud was also convicted. She will be sentenced in April.

Richard Young, Senior Investigating Officer for HMRC said:

‘This pair blatantly hijacked the identities of over 350 innocent people and stole from British taxpayers by submitting over 300 fraudulent tax credit claims between June 2004 and July 2008. They deliberately attacked and abused a system designed to provide financial help to the most vulnerable people in our society. The sentences given will be a warning to anyone considering committing this type of fraud – it will not be tolerated. HMRC will pursue, prosecute and reclaim the financial gain from those found to commit these types of crime. I urge anyone who has information about Tax Credits fraud, to call the National Benefit Fraud Hotline on 0800 854 440 and help us stamp this fraudulent activity out.’

Upon sentencing Taiwo, His Honour Judge Simon Davis said:

‘This is a fraud on a substantial scale. You lied and sought to manipulate with ease and confidence and with an arrogance that was astonishing. You were intimately connected with every aspect of the fraud, stealing real details of real people to commit identity fraud on the large scale.’

As part of the investigation, a search of his home uncovered evidence of the fraud taking place, including details of numerous bank accounts held in the defendants’ names and aliases, plus documentation which held hundreds of innocent people’s identities. HMRC investigators also seized £70,000, which is believed to be proceeds of the crime.

Internet link: Press release

HMRC launch business records tools

HMRC are making available on their website checklists and toolkits which they believe are suitable for the self employed, sole traders and small businesses. The tools have been released in advance of the launch of HMRC’s programme of Business Record Checks scheduled for later this year, which will impose penalties for significant record keeping failures.

Brian Redford, HMRC’s Acting Director, Business Customer Unit, said:

‘In these tough times, keeping good records makes sound business sense.’

‘It may seem like a challenge, particularly when you’re starting out, but keeping good records will bring real advantages to your business. Get a proper system in place and you’ll not only be confident that you are paying the right tax, but you’ll keep up-to-date with how much you owe suppliers and how much you are owed.’

‘Later this year, HMRC will start a programme of Business Records Checks that will look at the adequacy and accuracy of business records in SMEs to bring about a major improvement in the standard of record-keeping. Now is the time to invest a bit of effort to make sure your business records are perfect.’

The toolkits and checklists can be found on the Business Link website. However if you are unsure what records you should be keeping or would like a reminder please do get in touch.

Internet link: Press release

Plumbers Tax Safe Plan

HMRC have introduced the Plumbers Tax Safe Plan. This is the latest of HMRC’s disclosure opportunities and follows on from the doctors and dentists disclosure facility.

According to the HMRC website:

‘The Plumbers Tax Safe Plan (PTSP) is designed for people working within the plumbing industry who have not told HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) about all their income in the past and who now want to get back on track. It is intended to cover people who work (or worked) in the plumbing, heating or gas installation trades and this includes anyone who installs and repairs pipes and fixtures for water, drainage or gas systems in a building.’

If you would like any more information on the PTSP please do get in touch.

Internet links: HMRC disclosures Guidance Pack

Fuel Prices

George Osborne presented his second Budget Statement and said:

‘Today’s Budget is about reforming the nation’s economy, so that we have enduring growth and jobs in the future.

And it’s about doing what we can to help families with the cost of living and the high oil price.

We understand how difficult it is for so many people across our country right now.

That we are able now to set off on the route from rescue to reform, and reform to recovery, is because of difficult decisions we’ve already taken.’

One of the measures announced was a cut in fuel duty by 1 pence per litre together with scrapping the escalator for the rest of this Parliament. Duty on fuel was due to rise by inflation plus 1 pence from 1 April 2011, which would have added around 5 pence in cost to each litre of fuel.

Internet link: BBC news

Help for small businesses

Another Budget announcement was that as part of a raft of measures to help small businesses the current business rates holiday will be extended until October 2012.

During his statement George Osborne said:

‘The last government planned that the current rate relief holiday for small businesses should end in October this year. I don’t think that would be right. So I can announce that, at a cost to the Exchequer of £370 million, I will extend the rate holiday for small businesses for another year – to October 2012.’

David Gauke, Exchequer Secretary to the Treasury, has also issued a letter to small businesses setting out the measures designed to support for enterprise and small business. To read more about the measures visit the link below.

Internet link: Business link letter

HMRC online services unavailable

HMRC are advising taxpayers that unfortunately their online services will be unavailable from Saturday 2 April until 06.00 Wednesday 6 April 2011. This is to allow for IT upgrades. All services will be affected including Corporation Tax, Self Assessment, PAYE and VAT.

Internet link: HRMC services unavailable

Standard rate of VAT- updated guidance

HMRC have updated their guidance on how to deal with the change in the standard rate of VAT which happened on 4 January 2011. The guidance covers such issues as deposits, credit notes and services which span the change in rate. If you would like any further information please get in touch.

Internet link: HMRC VAT guidance

Retirement and the removal of the Default Retirement Age

Acas have updated their guidance on the transitional arrangements which are in place to abolish the default retirement age (DRA).

According to the Acas website:

‘The new regulations now make it clear that the transitional arrangements apply to anyone who is 65 or over by 30 September 2011 regardless of when they reached the age of 65.

The new regulations also provide for the notice of retirement to be extended up to a maximum of 6 months if the employee requests this before 5 January 2012 and the retirement takes place on or before 5 October 2012’.

To read the updated employer guidance and the article visit the links below.

Internet links: Acas article Acas guidance