The Second Budget 2015 – An Overview

The Second Budget 2015

George Osborne presented the first Budget of this Parliament on Wednesday 8 July 2015. The speech set out his plans for the next five years ‘to keep moving us from a low wage, high tax, high welfare economy; to the higher wage, lower welfare country we intend to create’.

Main Budget tax proposals

  • New taxation system for dividend receipts for individuals.
  • Proposals to restrict interest relief for ‘buy to let’ landlords.
  • Extension to the inheritance tax nil rate band available.

Other tax changes

  • An announcement of the amount of the Annual Investment Allowance available to businesses from January 2016.
  • Removal of the tax relief available on the acquisition of goodwill and customer related intangibles.
  • An increase in the amount of the NIC Employment Allowance.

The government also announced a number of changes to tax credits and Universal Credit as part of the welfare reforms aimed at reducing the growing expenditure in this area.

Our summary focuses on the tax issues likely to affect you, your family and your business. To help you decipher what was announced we have included our own comments.

If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact us for advice.

The Budget proposals may be subject to amendment in a Finance Act. You should contact us before taking any action as a result of the contents of this summary.

 

Personal Tax

The personal allowance for 2015/16

For those born after 5 April 1938 the personal allowance is £10,600. For those born before 6 April 1938 the personal allowance remains at £10,660. The reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000 is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for 2015/16 there is no personal allowance where adjusted net income exceeds £121,200.

Commitments to increase the personal allowance

The Chancellor announced that the personal allowance will be increased to £11,000 for 2016/17 and to £11,200 in 2017/18. These allowances are higher than those previously announced in the March Budget.

Legislation to ensure a tax-free minimum wage

The government has an objective to raise the personal allowance to £12,500 and the higher rate threshold to £50,000 by the end of this Parliament.

The government has announced that the personal allowance will automatically increase in line with the equivalent of 30 hours a week at the adult rate of the national minimum wage once the personal allowance reaches £12,500.

Tax bands and rates for 2015/16

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is £31,785 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies is £42,385 for those who are entitled to the full basic personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% is payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Currently dividend income is taxed at 10% where it falls within the basic rate band and 32.5% where liable at the higher rate of tax. Where income exceeds £150,000, dividends are taxed at 37.5%. Dividend income is deemed to be paid net of a notional 10% tax credit.

Some individuals qualify for the 0% starting rate of tax on savings income up to £5,000. The rate is not available if taxable non-savings income (broadly earnings, pensions, trading profits and property income) exceeds the starting rate limit.

Commitment to increase the 40% income tax threshold

The Chancellor announced that the basic rate limit will be increased to £32,000 for 2016/17 and to £32,400 for 2017/18.

The higher rate threshold will rise to £43,000 in 2016/17 and £43,600 in 2017/18 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

Personal Savings Allowance

The Chancellor announced in the March Budget that legislation will be introduced in a future Finance Bill to apply a Personal Savings Allowance to income such as bank and building society interest from 6 April 2016.

The Personal Savings Allowance will apply for up to £1,000 of a basic rate taxpayer’s savings income, and up to £500 of a higher rate taxpayer’s savings income each year. The Personal Savings Allowance will not be available for additional rate taxpayers.

Dividend Tax Allowance and rates of tax

The government will abolish the dividend tax credit from 6 April 2016 and introduce a new Dividend Tax Allowance of £5,000 a year.

The new rates of tax on dividend income above the allowance will be 7.5% for basic rate taxpayers, 32.5% for higher rate taxpayers and 38.1% for additional rate taxpayers. While these rates remain below the main rates of income tax, those who receive significant dividend income, for example as a result of receiving dividends through a close company, will pay more.

Comment

The government expects these changes to reduce the incentive to incorporate and remunerate through dividends rather than through wages to reduce tax liabilities.

The government also gives an example of a person who receives significant dividend income ‘due to very large shareholdings (typically more than £140,000)’ having to pay a higher rate of tax. It is unclear what this means.

Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)

In 2015/16 the overall ISA savings limit is £15,240.

From 6 April 2016 the government will introduce the Innovative Finance ISA, for loans arranged via a peer to peer (P2P) platform. A public consultation has been launched on whether to extend the list of ISA eligible investments to include debt securities and equity offered via a crowd funding platform.

It was announced in the March Budget that regulations would be introduced in autumn 2015, following consultation on technical detail, to enable ISA savers to withdraw and replace money from their cash ISA without it counting towards their annual ISA subscription limit for that year. This change will have effect from 6 April 2016.

Help to Buy ISA

The government announced the introduction of a new type of ISA in the March Budget, the Help to Buy ISA, which will provide a tax free savings account for first time buyers wishing to save for a home.

The scheme will provide a government bonus to each person who has saved into a Help to Buy ISA at the point they use their savings to purchase their first home. For every £200 a first time buyer saves, the government will provide a £50 bonus up to a maximum bonus of £3,000 on £12,000 of savings.

The government has now announced that Help to Buy ISAs will be available for first time buyers to start saving into from 1 December 2015. First time buyers will be able to open their Help to Buy ISA accounts with an additional one off deposit of £1,000.

Tax-Free Childcare scheme

The Tax-Free Childcare scheme will provide relief for 20% of the costs of childcare. The maximum relief will be £2,000 per child per year or £4,000 for disabled children. The scheme was scheduled to be launched in autumn 2015 but the launch date has been deferred to early 2017.

The current system of employer supported childcare will continue to be available for current members if they wish to remain in it or they can switch to the new scheme. Employer supported childcare will continue to be open to new joiners until the new scheme is available.

Employers’ workplace nurseries won’t be affected by the introduction of Tax-Free Childcare.

Comment

The scheme has been delayed due to a court case taken by some childcare voucher providers. The legal issues have now been resolved in favour of the government. So those people who are unable to use the current employer supported childcare scheme, such as the self-employed, will have to wait a bit longer to get support with childcare costs.

Free childcare

From September 2017 the free childcare entitlement will be doubled from 15 hours to 30 hours a week for working parents of 3 and 4 year olds. The government will implement this extension of free hours early in some local areas from September 2016. This free childcare is worth around £5,000 a year per child.

Restricting loan interest relief for ‘buy to let’ landlords

The government will restrict the amount of income tax relief landlords can get on residential property finance costs to the basic rate of income tax. Finance costs include mortgage interest, interest on loans to buy furnishings and fees incurred when taking out or repaying mortgages or loans. No relief is available for capital repayments of a mortgage or loan.

Landlords will no longer be able to deduct all of their finance costs from their property income. They will instead receive a basic rate reduction from their income tax liability for their finance costs. To give landlords time to adjust, the government will introduce this change gradually from April 2017, over four years.

The restriction in the relief will be phased in as follows:

  • in 2017/18, the deduction from property income will be restricted to 75% of finance costs, with the remaining 25% being available as a basic rate tax reduction
  • in 2018/19, 50% finance costs deduction and 50% given as a basic rate tax reduction
  • in 2019/20, 25% finance costs deduction and 75% given as a basic rate tax reduction
  • from 2020/21, all financing costs incurred by a landlord will be given as a basic rate tax reduction.

This restriction will not apply to landlords of furnished holiday lettings.

Comment

The restrictions on loan interest will be an unwelcome development for landlords paying higher or additional rate of tax. For many investors, the restriction on loan interest relief will materially alter their attitude to the amount of debt taken on.

Other changes to property taxation

From April 2016 the government will:

  • replace the Wear and Tear Allowance with a new relief that allows all residential landlords to deduct the actual costs of replacing furnishings. Capital allowances will continue to apply for landlords of furnished holiday lets.
  • increase the level of Rent-a-Room relief from £4,250 to £7,500 per annum.

Pensions – restriction on tax relief

The Annual Allowance provides an annual limit on tax relieved pension savings. It is currently £40,000. From April 2016 the government will introduce a taper to the Annual Allowance for those with adjusted annual incomes, including their own and employer’s pension contributions, over £150,000. For every £2 of adjusted income over £150,000, an individual’s Annual Allowance will be reduced by £1, down to a minimum of £10,000.

The government also wants to make sure that the right incentives are in place to encourage saving into pensions in the longer term. The government is therefore consulting on whether there is a case for reforming pensions tax relief.

 

Business Tax

Corporation tax rates

From 1 April 2015 the main rate of corporation tax is 20% and it is proposed that this rate will continue for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2016. The main rate of corporation tax will then be reduced as follows:

  • 19% for the Financial Years beginning on 1 April 2017, 1 April 2018 and 1 April 2019
  • 18% for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2020.

Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)

The AIA provides a 100% deduction for the cost of most plant and machinery (not cars) purchased by a business, up to an annual limit and is available to most businesses.

The maximum amount of the AIA was increased to £500,000 from 1 April 2014 for companies or 6 April 2014 for unincorporated businesses until 31 December 2015. However it was due to return to £25,000 after this date. The level of the maximum AIA will now be set permanently at £200,000 for all qualifying investment in plant and machinery made on or after 1 January 2016.

Where a business has a chargeable period which spans 1 January 2016 there are transitional rules for calculating the maximum AIA for that period. The maximum amount for the transitional period is the total of the time apportioned maximum AIA of £500,000 from the start of the chargeable period to 31 December 2015 plus the time apportioned maximum AIA of £200,000 from 1 January 2016 to the end of the chargeable period. However any AIA available on expenditure in the second period would be limited to the time apportioned maximum in that period.

Corporation tax relief for business goodwill

Where a company acquires goodwill or intangible assets, which are recognised in the accounts, a corporation tax deduction is available for the charge to profit and loss when the assets are written off. This deduction is only available on the acquisition of a business and not on the acquisition of shares in a company.

For acquisitions of goodwill and customer related intangibles made on or after 8 July 2015 this relief will no longer be available. In addition, there will be restrictions on the treatment of any allowable losses realised on subsequent disposals of goodwill or customer related intangibles which were acquired on or after 8 July 2015. There are no restrictions where a profit is made on a subsequent disposal.

Corporation tax payment dates

The government will introduce earlier dates for the payment of corporation tax for larger companies and groups, for accounting periods starting on or after 1 April 2017. For companies with annual taxable profits of £20 million or more, tax will be payable in quarterly instalments in the third, sixth, ninth and twelfth months of their accounting period. For groups the threshold is divided by the number of companies in the group.

Tax-advantaged venture capital schemes

This Budget also announces that the government will make amendments to the tax-advantaged venture capital schemes to ensure that the UK continues to offer significant and well-targeted support for investment into small and growing companies, with a particular focus on innovative companies.

 

Capital Taxes

Capital gains tax (CGT) rates and annual exemption

No changes have been announced in respect of CGT rates or the annual exemption.

Inheritance tax (IHT) nil rate band

The IHT nil rate band is currently frozen at £325,000 until April 2018. This is to remain frozen until April 2021.

IHT and the main residence nil rate band

An additional nil rate band is to be introduced where a residence is passed on death to direct descendants such as a child or a grandchild. This will initially be £100,000 in 2017/18, rising to £125,000 in 2018/19, £150,000 in 2019/20, and £175,000 in 2020/21. It will then increase in line with CPI from 2021/22 onwards. The additional band can only be used in respect of one residential property which has, at some point, been a residence of the deceased.

Any unused nil rate band may be transferred to a surviving spouse or civil partner. It will also be available when a person downsizes or ceases to own a home on or after 8 July 2015 and assets of an equivalent value, up to the value of the additional nil rate band, are passed on death to direct descendants. This element will be the subject of a technical consultation and will be legislated for in Finance Bill 2016.

There will also be a tapered withdrawal of the additional nil rate band for estates with a net value (after deducting any liabilities but before reliefs and exemptions) of more than £2 million. This will be at a withdrawal rate of £1 for every £2 over this threshold.

The current tax position of the non UK domicile

A UK resident and domiciled individual is taxed on worldwide income and gains. Non UK domiciles who are UK resident are currently able to claim the remittance basis of taxation in respect of foreign income and gains. This means that they are only taxed if foreign income and gains are brought into the UK. The non UK domicile is also favourably treated for IHT as they only pay IHT in respect of UK assets as opposed to their worldwide assets.

New proposals for non UK domiciles

The government intends to abolish non UK domicile status for certain long term residents from April 2017. This will only apply where an individual has been resident for at least 15 out of the last 20 tax years. Such individuals will be treated as deemed UK domicile for all tax purposes.

In addition, those who had a domicile in the UK at the date of their birth will revert to having a UK domicile for tax purposes whenever they are resident in the UK, even if under general law they have acquired a domicile in another country.

UK residential property held indirectly by non UK domicile persons

The government will legislate to ensure that, from April 2017, IHT is payable on all UK residential property owned by non UK domiciles, regardless of their residence status for tax purposes, including property held indirectly through an offshore structure such as a trust or partnership.

 

Other Matters

Tax lock

The government will legislate to set a ceiling for the main rates of income tax, the standard and reduced rates of VAT, and employer and employee Class 1 NIC rates, ensuring that they cannot rise above their current levels. The tax lock will also ensure that the NIC Upper Earnings Limit cannot rise above the income tax higher rate threshold and will prevent the relevant statutory provisions being used to remove any items from the zero rate of VAT and reduced rate of VAT for the duration of this Parliament.

National Living Wage

The government will introduce a new National Living Wage (NLW) for workers aged 25 and above, by introducing a premium on top of the National Minimum Wage (NMW). From April 2016, the NLW will be set at £7.20 an hour. This rate is 70p higher than the current NMW rate, and 50p above the NMW increase coming into effect in October 2015.

Employment allowance

From April 2016, the government will increase the NIC Employment Allowance from £2,000 to £3,000 a year. The increase will mean that businesses will be able to employ four workers full time on the new National Living Wage (NLW) without paying any NIC.

To ensure that the NIC Employment Allowance is focussed on businesses and charities that support employment, from April 2016, companies where the director is the sole employee will no longer be able to claim the Employment Allowance.

Tax avoidance

A raft of HMRC compliance initiatives are to be launched over the next few years. To quote the Chancellor:

‘We’re boosting HMRC’s capacity with three quarters of a billion pounds of investment to go after tax fraud, offshore trusts and the businesses of the hidden economy, tripling the number of wealthy evaders they pursue for prosecution – raising £7.2 billion in extra tax.’

Tax credits

A number of changes to tax credits and Universal Credit are announced as part of the welfare reforms aimed at reducing the growing expenditure in this area.

Key changes include:

  • From April 2016 the government will reduce the level of earnings at which a household’s tax credits and Universal Credit award starts to be withdrawn for every extra pound earned. There will also be an increase in the taper rate which applies to any excess income further reducing the tax credit award.
  • Limiting the Child Element of both tax credits and Universal Credit to two children so that any subsequent children born after April 2017 will not be eligible for further support. Some claimants will be protected from these changes.
  • Those starting a family after April 2017 will not be eligible for the Family Element in tax credits and equivalent in Universal Credit.

In addition tax credit allowances (with the exception of disability elements) will be frozen

Budget 2015 – An Overview

The Budget 2015

George Osborne presented the final Budget of this Parliament on Wednesday 18 March 2015.

In his speech the Chancellor reported ‘on a Britain that is growing, creating jobs and paying its way’.

Towards the end of 2014 the government issued many proposed clauses of Finance Bill 2015 together with updates on consultations. Due to the dissolution of Parliament on 30 March some measures will be legislated for in the week commencing 23 March, whilst others will be enacted by a Finance Bill in the next Parliament (depending on the result of the General Election).

The Budget proposes further measures, some of which may only come to fruition if the Conservative Party is in power in the next Parliament.

Our summary focuses on the issues likely to affect you, your family and your business. To help you decipher what was announced we have included our own comments. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact us for advice.

Main Budget tax proposals

  • Increased personal allowances
  • The introduction of a new Personal Savings Allowance
  • Changes to ISAs including the introduction of a new type of ISA for First Time Buyers
  • Changes to pensions
  • Potential business rate reform in England
  • Entrepreneur’s Relief – changes to qualifying conditions

The Budget proposals may be subject to amendment in a Finance Act. You should contact us before taking any action as a result of the contents of this summary.

Personal Tax

The personal allowance for 2015/16

For those born after 5 April 1938 the personal allowance will be increased to £10,600. For those born before 6 April 1938 the personal allowance remains at £10,660.

Comment

The reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000 will continue. The reduction is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for 2015/16 there is no personal allowance where adjusted net income exceeds £121,200.

Tax bands and rates for 2015/16

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is being decreased from £31,865 to £31,785 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies will rise from £41,865 to £42,385 for those who are entitled to the full basic personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% is payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Dividend income is taxed at 10% where it falls within the basic rate band and 32.5% where liable at the higher rate of tax. Where income exceeds £150,000, dividends are taxed at 37.5%.

Starting rate of tax for savings income

From 6 April 2015, the maximum amount of an eligible individual’s savings income that can qualify for the starting rate of tax for savings will be increased from £2,880 to £5,000, and this starting rate will be reduced from 10% to 0%. These rates are not available if taxable non-savings income (broadly earnings, pensions, trading profits and property income) exceeds the starting rate limit.

Comment

This will increase the number of savers who are not required to pay tax on savings income, such as bank or building society interest. Eligible savers can register to receive their interest gross using a form R85.

The increase will also provide a useful tax break for director-shareholders who extract their share of profits from a company by taking a low salary and the balance in dividends. This is because dividends are taxed after savings income and thus are not included in the individual’s ‘taxable non-savings income’.

Transferable Tax Allowance

From 6 April 2015 married couples and civil partners may be eligible for a new Transferable Tax Allowance.

The Transferable Tax Allowance will enable spouses and civil partners to transfer a fixed amount of their personal allowance to their spouse. The option to transfer is not available to unmarried couples.

The option to transfer will be available to couples where neither pays tax at the higher or additional rate. If eligible, one partner will be able to transfer 10% of their personal allowance to the other partner which means £1,060 for the 2015/16 tax year.

Comment

For those couples where one person does not use all of their personal allowance the benefit will be up to £212 (20% of £1,060).

Eligible couples can now register their interest for marriage allowance at GOV.UK/marriageallowance. The spouse or partner with the lower income registers their interest in transferring some of their personal allowance by entering some basic details. HMRC will subsequently invite the couple to apply. Those who don’t register their interest will be able to make an application at a later date and still receive the allowance.

The personal allowance and tax bands for 2016/17 and beyond

The personal allowance will be increased to £10,800 in 2016/17 and to £11,000 in 2017/18. The Transferable Tax Allowance will also rise in line with the personal allowance, being 10% of the personal allowance for the year.

The higher rate threshold will rise in line with the personal allowance, taking it to £42,700 in 2016/17 and £43,300 in 2017/18 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

Personal Savings Allowance

The Chancellor announced that legislation will be introduced in a future Finance Bill to apply a Personal Savings Allowance to income such as bank and building society interest from 6 April 2016.

The Personal Savings Allowance will apply for up to £1,000 of a basic rate taxpayer’s savings income, and up to £500 of a higher rate taxpayer’s savings income each year. The Personal Savings Allowance will not be available for additional rate taxpayers.

These changes will have effect from 6 April 2016 and the Personal Savings Allowance will be in addition to the tax advantages currently available to savers from Individual Savings Accounts.

Comment

The Personal Savings Allowance will provide basic and higher rate tax payers with a tax saving of up to £200 each year.

The end of tax deduction at source on interest

Due to the changes to the starting rate for savings and the introduction of a Personal Savings Allowance, many individuals will no longer need to pay tax on their savings income. Currently, 20% income tax is automatically deducted from most interest on savings excluding ISAs.

From April 2016, the automatic deduction of 20% income tax by banks and building societies on non-ISA savings will cease.

Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)

On 1 July 2014 ISAs were reformed and the overall annual subscription limit for these accounts was increased to £15,000 for 2014/15. From 6 April 2015 the overall ISA savings limit will be increased to £15,240.

The Chancellor announced in the Autumn Statement an additional ISA allowance for spouses or civil partners when an ISA saver dies. The additional ISA allowance will be equal to the value of a deceased person’s savings at the time of their death and will be in addition to the normal ISA subscription limit. Regulations will set out the time period within which the additional allowance will be used. In certain circumstances an individual will be able to transfer to their own ISA non-cash assets such as stocks and shares previously held by their spouse.

Comment

In most cases it is envisaged that the additional allowance will be used to subscribe to an ISA offered by the same financial institution that provided the deceased person’s ISA. As the new regulations will allow the transfer of stocks and shares directly into the new ISA, in many cases the effect will be that the investments are left intact and the spouse becomes the new owner of the deceased person’s ISA.

This measure applies for deaths from 3 December 2014 and takes effect from 6 April 2015.

As announced at Budget 2015, regulations will be introduced to extend the list of qualifying investments for ISAs and Child Trust Funds to include listed bonds issued by Co-operative Societies and Community Benefit Societies and SME securities that are admitted to trading on a recognised stock exchange, with effect from 1 July 2015.

The government will also consult during summer 2015 on further extending this list of qualifying investments to include debt securities and equity securities offered via crowd funding platforms.

It was announced at Budget 2015 that regulations will be introduced in autumn 2015, following consultation on technical detail, to enable ISA savers to withdraw and replace money from their cash ISA without it counting towards their annual ISA subscription limit for that year.

At Budget 2014, the Chancellor announced that peer-to-peer loans would be eligible for inclusion within ISAs. The government has consulted on the options for changes to the ISA rules to allow peer-to-peer loans to be held within them.

No start date has been announced.

Comment

Peer-to-peer lending is a small but rapidly growing alternative source of finance for individuals and businesses. The inclusion of such loans in ISAs will increase choice for investors and encourage the growth of the peer-to-peer sector.

Help to Buy ISA

The government has announced the introduction of a new type of ISA, the Help to Buy ISA, which will provide a tax free savings account for first time buyers wishing to save for a home.

The scheme will provide a government bonus to each person who has saved into a Help to Buy ISA at the point they use their savings to purchase their first home. For every £200 a first time buyer saves, the government will provide a £50 bonus up to a maximum bonus of £3,000 on £12,000 of savings.

Help to Buy ISAs will be subject to eligibility rules and limits:

  • An individual will only be eligible for one account throughout the lifetime of the scheme and it is only available to first time buyers.
  • Interest received on the account will be tax free.
  • Savings will be limited to a monthly maximum of £200 with an opportunity to deposit an additional £1,000 when the account is first opened.
  • The government will provide a 25% bonus on the total amount saved including interest, capped at a maximum of £3,000 which is tax free.
  • The bonus will be paid when the first home is purchased.
  • The bonus can only be put towards a first home located in the UK with a purchase value of £450,000 or less in London and £250,000 or less in the rest of the UK.
  • The government bonus can be claimed at any time, subject to a minimum bonus amount of £400.
  • The accounts are limited to one per person rather than one per home so those buying together can both receive a bonus.
  • As is currently the case it will only be possible for an individual to subscribe to one cash ISA per year. It will not be possible for an account holder to subscribe to a Help to Buy ISA with one provider and another cash ISA with a different provider.
  • Once an account is opened there is no limit on how long an individual can save into it and no time limit on when they can use their bonus.

The government intends the Help to Buy ISA scheme to be available from autumn 2015 and investors will be able to open a Help to Buy ISA for a period of four years.

Junior ISA and Child Trust Fund (CTF)

The annual subscription limit for Junior ISA and Child Trust Fund accounts will increase from £4,000 to £4,080.

The government has previously decided that a transfer of savings from a CTF to a Junior ISA should be permitted at the request of the registered contact for the CTF. The government has confirmed the measure will have effect from 6 April 2015.

Bad debt relief on investments made on peer-to-peer lending

The government will introduce a new relief to allow individuals lending through peer-to-peer platforms to offset any losses from loans which go bad against other peer-to-peer income. It will be effective from 6 April 2016 and, through self assessment, will allow individuals to make a claim for relief on losses incurred from 6 April 2015.

Pensions saving

There is an overall limit, known as the lifetime allowance, on the total amount of tax relieved pension savings that an individual can have over their lifetime. The Chancellor has now announced that for tax year 2016/17 onwards:

The standard lifetime allowance will be reduced from £1.25 million to £1 million.

Fixed and individual protection regimes will be introduced alongside the reduction in the lifetime allowance to protect savers who think they may be affected by this change.

The lifetime allowance will be indexed annually in line with CPI from 6 April 2018.

Pensions – changes to access to pension funds

The Taxation of Pensions Act has recently been enacted. It provides that individuals aged 55 or over can access their money purchase pension savings as they choose from 6 April 2015.

In most cases access to the fund will be achieved in one of two ways:

  • Allocation of a pension fund (or part of a pension fund) to a ‘flexi-access drawdown account’ from which any amount can be taken over whatever period the person decides.
  • Taking a single or series of lump sums from a pension fund (known as an ‘uncrystallised funds pension lump sum’).

When an allocation of funds to a flexi-access account is made the member typically will take the opportunity of taking a tax free lump sum from the fund (as under current rules).

The person will then decide how much or how little to take from the flexi-access account. Any amounts that are taken will count as taxable income in the year of receipt.

Access to some or all of a pension fund without first allocating to a flexi-access account can be achieved by taking an uncrystallised funds pension lump sum.

The tax effect will be:

  • 25% is tax free
  • the remainder is taxable as income.

An annuity can, of course, be purchased with some or all of the fund as currently.

Comment

The fundamental tax planning point arising from the changes is self-evident. A person should decide when to access funds depending upon their other income in each tax year.

Pension freedoms to be extended to people with annuities

The Chancellor announced just before the Budget a new flexibility for people who have already purchased an annuity. From April 2016, the government will remove the restrictions on buying and selling existing annuities to allow pensioners to sell the income they receive from their annuity for a capital sum.

Individuals will then have the freedom to take that capital as a lump sum, or place it into drawdown to use the proceeds more gradually.

Income tax at the individuals’ marginal rate will be payable in the year of access to the proceeds.

The proposal will not give the annuity holder the right to sell their annuity back to their original provider. The government has begun a consultation on the measures that are needed to establish a market to buy and sell annuities and who should be permitted to purchase the annuity income.

Comment

The government recognises that for most people retaining their annuity will be the right choice. However, individuals may want to sell an annuity, for instance to pay off debts or to purchase a more flexible pension income product.

Taxation of resident non-domiciles

There will be some changes in the annual charge paid by non-domiciled individuals resident in the UK who wish to retain access to the remittance basis of taxation.

The charge paid by people who have been UK resident for seven out of the last nine years will remain at £30,000. The charge paid by people who have been UK resident for 12 out of the last 14 years will increase from £50,000 to £60,000. A new charge of £90,000 will be introduced for people who have been UK resident for 17 of the last 20 years.

The changes apply for 2015/16.

The government is consulting on making the election to pay the remittance basis charge apply for a minimum of three years.

Business Tax

Corporation tax rates

From 1 April 2015 the main rate of corporation tax, currently 21%, will be reduced to 20%.

As the small profits rate is already 20%, the need for this separate code of taxation disappears. The small profits rate will therefore be unified with the main rate.

It is proposed that the rate of corporation tax will continue at 20% for the financial year beginning on 1 April 2016.

Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)

The AIA provides a 100% deduction for the cost of most plant and machinery (not cars) purchased by a business up to an annual limit and is available to most businesses. Where businesses spend more than the annual limit, any additional qualifying expenditure generally attracts an annual writing down allowance of only 18% or 8% depending on the type of asset.

The maximum annual amount of the AIA was increased to £500,000 from 1 April 2014 for companies or 6 April 2014 for unincorporated businesses until 31 December 2015. However it was due to return to £25,000 after this date. The Chancellor announced that following conversations with business groups this would be addressed in the Autumn Statement and would be set at a much more generous rate.

Research and Development (R&D) tax credits

As previously announced, the government will increase the rate of the ‘above the line’ credit from 10% to 11% and will increase the rate of the SME scheme from 225% to 230% from 1 April 2015.

It is proposed to restrict qualifying expenditure for R&D tax credits from 1 April 2015 so that the costs of consumable items incorporated in products that are sold are not eligible. Following consultation the restriction will not apply where the product of the R&D is transferred as waste, or where it is transferred but no consideration is received.

A new voluntary advance assurance service lasting three years will be introduced for small companies making their first claim from autumn 2015. From 2016 the time taken to process a claim will be reduced. New guidance will be issued by HMRC aimed specifically at smaller companies, backed by a two year publicity strategy to raise awareness of R&D tax credits. HMRC will publish a document in the summer setting out a roadmap for further improvements to the scheme over the next two years.

Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) improvements

At Autumn Statement the government announced it would make a number of changes to the CIS. The aim of the changes is to reduce the administrative burden and related cost burden on construction businesses. The measures should result in more subcontracting businesses being able to achieve and maintain gross payment status, thus improving their cashflow. These changes are to be implemented in stages by the issue of Statutory Instruments.

From 6 April 2015 amendments will be made to the system including:

  • The requirement for a contractor to make a return to HMRC even if the contractor has not made any payments in a tax month is removed.
  • The requirements for joint ventures to gain gross payment status will be relaxed where one member already has this status and where that firm or company has a right to at least 50% of the assets or the income or holds at least 50% of the shares or the voting power in the joint venture.

From 6 April 2016 further changes are proposed:

  • Mandatory online filing of CIS returns will be introduced with the offer of alternative filing arrangements for those unable to access an online channel by reason of age, disability, remote location or religious objection.
  • The directors’ self assessment filing requirements will be removed from the initial and annual compliance tests.
  • The threshold for the turnover test will be reduced to £100,000 in multiple directorship situations.

From 6 April 2017 mandatory online verification of subcontractors will be introduced.

Comment

About two thirds of CIS contractors are also employers who therefore file Real Time Information PAYE returns online. It is no surprise that the government wants to extend the scope of mandatory online filing. The improvements to the online verification process would be welcome but the government is also proposing to remove the option of verifying subcontractors by telephone.

Class 2 National Insurance contributions (NIC)

From 6 April 2015 liability to pay Class 2 NIC will arise at the end of each year. Currently a liability to Class 2 NIC arises on a weekly basis.

The amount of Class 2 NIC due will still be calculated based on the number of weeks of self-employment in the year, but will be determined when the individual completes their self assessment return. It will therefore be paid alongside their income tax and Class 4 NIC. For those who wish to spread the cost of their Class 2 NIC, HMRC will retain a facility for them to make regular payments throughout the year. The current six monthly billing system will cease from 6 April 2015.

Those with profits below a threshold will no longer have to apply in advance for an exception from paying Class 2 NIC. Instead they will have the option to pay Class 2 NIC voluntarily at the end of the year so that they may protect their benefit rights.

The government has announced that Class 2 NIC will be abolished in the next Parliament and will reform Class 4 NIC to include a contributory benefit test. Consultation on these matters will take place later in 2015.

Corporation tax relief for goodwill on incorporation

Corporation tax relief may be available to companies when goodwill and intangible assets are recognised in the financial accounts. Relief is normally given on the cost of the asset as the expenditure is written off in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Practice or at a fixed 4% rate, following an election.

An anti-avoidance measure was announced at Autumn Statement to restrict corporation tax relief. The restriction applies where a company acquires internally-generated goodwill and certain other intangible assets used in a business from ‘related persons’. In particular, related persons includes individuals who are shareholders in the company.

In addition, individuals will be prevented from claiming Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER) on disposals of goodwill when they transfer the business to a related company. Capital gains tax will be payable on the gain at the normal rates of 18% or 28% rather than 10%. Following consultation, the legislation will be revised to allow ER to be claimed by partners in a firm who do not hold or acquire any stake in the successor company.

These measures apply to all transfers on or after 3 December 2014 unless made pursuant to an unconditional obligation entered into before that date.

Comment

Prior to this announcement it was possible, for example, on incorporation of a sole trader’s business to a company which is owned by the sole trader, for the company to obtain corporation tax relief on the market value of goodwill at the time of incorporation. The disposal by the sole trader would qualify for a low rate of capital gains tax.

The government considers this is unfair to a business that has always operated as a company.

Diverted profits tax

At Autumn Statement, a new tax to counter the use of aggressive tax planning techniques by multinational enterprises to divert profits from the UK was announced. Legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2015 for a new Diverted Profits Tax using a proposed rate of 25% to apply from 1 April 2015.

Farmers averaging

The government will extend the period over which self-employed farmers can average their profits for income tax purposes from two years to five years. A consultation will be held later this year and the legislation to be introduced in a future Finance Bill will come into effect from 6 April 2016.

Changes to venture capital schemes

The government will make amendments to the Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS), Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS), and Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs).

The government will, subject to EU State aid approval:

  • Require that companies must be less than 12 years old when receiving their first EIS or VCT investment, except where the investment will lead to a substantial change in the company’s activity.
  • Introduce a cap on total investment received under the tax-advantaged venture capital schemes of £15 million, increasing to £20 million for knowledge-intensive companies.
  • Increase the employee limit for knowledge-intensive companies to 499 employees, from the current limit of 249 employees.

The government will encourage the transition from SEIS to the other venture capital schemes by removing the requirement that 70% of the funds raised under SEIS must have been spent before EIS or VCT funding can be raised.

Business rates – England

Shortly before the Budget the government launched a wide-ranging review of national business rates in England.

The review, set to report back by Budget 2016, will examine the structure of the current system. The review will look at how businesses use property and how to modernise the system so it better reflects changes in the value of property.

Employment Taxes

Employer provided cars

The scale of charges for working out the taxable benefit for an employee who has use of an employer provided car are now announced well in advance. Most cars are taxed by reference to bands of CO2 emissions. The percentage applied to each band has typically gone up by 1% each year with an overriding maximum charge of 35% of the list price of the car. From 6 April 2015 the percentage applied by each band goes up by 2% and the maximum charge is increased to 37%.

From 6 April 2016 there will be a further 2% increase in the percentage applied by each band with similar increases in 2017/18 and 2018/19. For 2019/20 the rate will increase by a further 3%. The 3% diesel supplement will be removed from 6 April 2016.

Comment

These increases may discourage businesses from retaining the same car. New cars will often have lower CO2 emissions than the equivalent model purchased by the employer, say three years earlier.

Zero emission vans

The van benefit charge exemption for zero emission vans is to be phased out from 6 April 2015. For 2015/16 a charge will apply equal to 20% of the normal van benefit charge. This will increase by a further 20% each year over the next three years up to 2018/19 and by a further 10% in 2019/20. From 6 April 2020 a normal 100% van benefit charge will apply to zero emission vans.

Comment

The charge for a zero emission van for 2015/16 will therefore be £630 (£3,150 x 20%).

Employer National Insurance contributions (NIC) for the under 21s

From 6 April 2015 employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 will be reduced from the normal rate of 13.8% to 0%. For the 0% rate to apply the employee will need to be under 21 when the earnings are paid.

This exemption will not apply to earnings above the Upper Secondary Threshold (UST) in a pay period. The weekly UST is £815 for 2015/16 which is equivalent to £42,385 per annum. Employers will be liable to 13.8% NIC beyond this limit.

Comment

The UST is a new term introduced for this new NIC exemption. It is set at the same amount as the Upper Earnings Limit, which is the amount at which employees’ NIC fall from 12% to 2%.

NIC for apprentices under 25

The government will abolish employer NIC up to the UST for apprentices aged under 25. This will come into effect from 6 April 2016.

Comment

Detailed regulations will be issued on the NIC for apprentices including the definition of an apprentice.

NIC Employment Allowance

The Employment Allowance was introduced from 6 April 2014. It is an annual allowance of up to £2,000 which is available to many employers and can be offset against their employer NIC liability.

The government will extend the annual £2,000 Employment Allowance for employer NIC to householders who employ care and support workers. This will come into effect from 6 April 2015.

Review of employee benefits

In 2014 the Office of Tax Simplification published recommendations on the tax treatment of employee benefits in kind and expenses. In response the government has issued draft legislation on four areas:

  • From 6 April 2015 there will be a statutory exemption for certain non-cash benefits in kind costing up to £50. An annual cap of £300 will be introduced for office holders of close companies and employees who are family members of those office holders. Those affected by this cap will be able to receive a maximum of £300 worth of trivial benefits in kind each year exempt from tax.
  • From 6 April 2016 the £8,500 threshold below which employees do not pay income tax on certain benefits in kind will be removed. There will be new exemptions for carers and ministers of religion.
  • From 6 April 2016 there will be no tax liability on an employee for certain reimbursed expenses. This will replace the current system where employers have to apply for a dispensation to avoid having to report non-taxable expenses (on forms P11D). Also employees will automatically get the tax relief they are due on qualifying expenses payments.
  • HMRC will be able to issue Regulations to allow employers to include taxable benefits in pay and thus account for PAYE on the benefits. Employers will therefore not have to include these items on forms P11D.

Overarching contracts of employment and temporary workers

The use of overarching contracts of employment by employment intermediaries such as ‘umbrella companies’ can result in workers obtaining tax relief for home to work travel that would not ordinarily be available.

From April 2016 the government will change the rules to restrict travel and subsistence relief for workers engaged through an employment intermediary, such as an umbrella company or a personal service company, and under the supervision, direction and control of the end-user.

Capital Taxes

Capital gains tax (CGT) rates

The current rates of CGT are 18% to the extent that any income tax basic rate band is available and 28% thereafter. The rate for disposals qualifying for Entrepreneurs’ Relief is 10% with a lifetime limit of £10 million for each individual.

CGT annual exemption

The CGT annual exemption will increase to £11,100 for 2015/16.

CGT – Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER)

Gains which are eligible for ER, but which are deferred into investments which qualify for the Enterprise Investment Scheme or Social Investment Tax Relief can now remain eligible for ER when the gain is realised. This applies to qualifying ER gains on disposals on or after 3 December 2014 which are deferred into either scheme.

CGT – Restricting ER

ER will not be available to reduce CGT on gains which accrue on personally owned assets used in a trading business carried on by a company or a partnership, unless they are disposed of in connection with a disposal of at least a 5% shareholding in the company, or a 5% share in the partnership assets. This measure will affect disposals on and after 18 March 2015.

Comment

To obtain ER on a personally owned asset used in a trading company or partnership there has to be a genuine withdrawal from participation in the company or partnership. The measure therefore clarifies what is allowed for a valid ER claim to be made.

CGT – ER on joint ventures and partnerships

Amendments are to be made for ER purposes to the definition of a trading company or holding company of a trading group. This will be determined by reference to that company’s own activities (or the activities of the group.)

The aim is to exclude the activities carried on by joint venture companies in which a company is invested, or of partnerships of which a company is a member. Therefore a company will need to have a significant trade of its own in order to be considered as a trading company. It does not, however, affect shareholdings in companies whose investment in a joint venture is part of their own trade. This measure will affect disposals on and after 18 March 2015.

CGT – non-residents and UK residential property

Following consultation the government has confirmed that from 6 April 2015 non-UK resident individuals, trusts, personal representatives and narrowly controlled companies will be subject to CGT on gains accruing on the disposal of UK residential property on or after that date. Non-resident individuals will be subject to tax at the same rates as UK taxpayers (28% or 18% on gains above the annual exemption). Non-resident companies will be subject to tax at the same rates as UK corporates (20%).

CGT – Principal Private Residence Relief (PPR)

The government has decided that some changes are required to the rules determining the circumstances when a property can benefit from PPR. The changes will apply to both a UK resident disposing of a residence in another country and a non-resident disposing of a UK residence.

From 6 April 2015 a person’s residence will not be eligible for PPR for a tax year unless either:

  • the person making the disposal was resident in the same country as the property for that tax year, or
  • the person spent at least 90 midnights in that property.

Comment

The main point of the changes to the PPR rules is to remove the ability of an individual who is resident in, say, France with a property in the UK as well as France to nominate the UK property as having the benefit of PPR. Any gain on the French property is not subject to UK tax anyway and, without changes to the PPR rules, the gain on the UK property could be removed by making a PPR election.

The good news is that the latest proposals retain the ability of a UK resident with two UK residences to nominate which of those properties has the benefit of PPR.

Changes to the tax treatment of pension funds on death

If an individual has not bought an annuity, a defined contribution pension fund remains available to pass on to selected beneficiaries. Inheritance tax (IHT) can be avoided by making a ‘letter of wishes’ to the pension provider suggesting to whom the funds should be paid. However, currently there are other tax charges to reflect the principle that income tax relief would have been given on contributions into the pension fund and therefore some tax should be payable when the fund is paid out. In some situations tax at 55% of the fund value is payable.

The government has introduced significant exceptions from the tax charges (in the Taxation of Pensions Act). Generally the changes take effect where the first payment to a beneficiary is on or after 6 April 2015.

Under the new system, anyone who dies under the age of 75 will be able to give their remaining defined contribution pension fund to anyone completely tax free, whether it is in a drawdown account or untouched. This is subject to the condition that the fund is transferred into the names of chosen beneficiaries within two years. The fund can be paid out as a lump sum to a beneficiary or monies taken out of the fund by the beneficiary when required.

Those aged 75 or over when they die will also be able to pass their defined contribution pension fund to any beneficiary who will then be able to draw down on it as income whenever they wish. They will pay tax at their marginal rate of income tax when the income is received. Beneficiaries will also have the option of receiving the fund as a lump sum payment, subject to a tax charge of 45%.

Changes to the tax treatment of annuities on death

Draft legislation has been issued which changes the tax treatment when an annuity continues to be paid after death. The changes mirror the changes to the treatment of pension funds passing to beneficiaries on death. For example beneficiaries of individuals who die under the age of 75 with a joint life or guaranteed term annuity will be able to receive any future payments from such policies tax free.

The changes apply where the first payment to a beneficiary is on or after 6 April 2015.

Inheritance tax and deeds of variation

The government will review the uses of deeds of variation as these can currently be used to avoid IHT charges.

Other Matters

Digital tax accounts

The government has announced some initiatives to ‘transform the tax system over the next Parliament’ by introducing digital tax accounts and removing the need for annual tax returns. A digital tax account will enable individuals and small businesses to see and manage their tax affairs online. As a first step, the government will:

  • publish a roadmap later this year setting out the policy and administrative changes needed to implement this reform
  • introduce digital tax accounts for five million small businesses and the ten million individuals by early 2016.

Gift Aid

It is proposed to increase the annual donation amount which can be claimed through the Gift Aid Small Donations Scheme to £8,000. This will allow charities and Community Amateur Sports Clubs to claim Gift Aid style top-up payments of up to £2,000 a year, with effect from April 2016.

VAT help for certain charities

As announced at Autumn Statement 2014 hospice, search and rescue and air ambulance charities will be eligible for VAT refunds from 1 April 2015. The Chancellor has now announced that blood bike charities will also be included.

Tax evasion

The government will toughen sanctions for those who evade tax by closing early the existing disclosure facilities. For example the Liechtenstein Disclosure Facility will close at the end of 2015, instead of April 2016. A tougher ‘last chance’ disclosure facility will be offered between 2016 and mid-2017, with penalties of at least 30% on top of tax owed and interest and with no immunity from criminal prosecutions in appropriate cases.

Tax avoidance

The government will introduce tougher measures for those who persistently enter into tax avoidance schemes that fail, and will develop further measures to publish the names of such avoiders and to tackle avoiders who repeatedly abuse reliefs.

Specific anti-avoidance measures

  • The government will introduce legislation, effective from 18 March 2015, to prevent companies from obtaining a tax advantage by entering contrived arrangements to turn historic tax losses of restricted use into more versatile in-year deductions.
  • Measures will be introduced to prevent partly exempt VAT businesses taking account of foreign branches when calculating how much VAT on overhead costs they can reclaim in the UK. This will take effect from 1 August 2015.
  • The government will introduce legislation, with effect from 26 February 2015, to clarify the effect of capital allowances anti-avoidance rules where there are transactions between connected parties or sale and leaseback transactions.

This summary is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the main proposals announced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in his Budget Statement, and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this summary can be accepted by the authors or the firm.

Budget 2014 – An Overview

Budget 2014

George Osborne presented his Budget on Wednesday 19 March 2014.

In his speech the Chancellor set the scene for the announcements stating that ‘If you’re a maker, a doer or a saver: this Budget is for you.’

Towards the end of last year the Government issued the majority of the clauses, in draft, of Finance Bill 2014 together with updates on consultations. The publication of the draft Finance Bill clauses is now an established way in which tax policy is developed, communicated and legislated.

The Budget updates some of these previous announcements and also proposes further measures. Some of these changes apply from April 2014 and some take effect at a later date.

Our summary focuses on the issues likely to affect you, your family and your business. To help you decipher what was said we have included our own comments. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact us for advice.

Main Budget tax proposals

  • The starting rate band for savings will be increased from April 2015 and the current 10% tax rate reduced to nil.
  • Individual Savings Accounts are to be simplified by merging the cash and stocks ISAs together with a significant increase in the investment limit from 1 July 2014.
  • Radical changes are to be made to the pensions regime including removing the restrictions on access to pension pots so there will no longer be a requirement to buy an annuity.
  • The Annual Investment Allowance is to be doubled to £500,000 until 31 December 2015.
  • An increase will be made in the R&D tax credit available to loss making SMEs to 14.5%.
  • Those using tax avoidance schemes may be required to pay tax upfront.

The Budget proposals may be subject to amendment in a Finance Act. You should contact us before taking any action as a result of the contents of this summary.

Personal Tax

The personal allowance for 2014/15

For those born after 5 April 1948 the personal allowance will be increased from £9,440 to £10,000.

The reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000 will continue. The reduction is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for this year there is no allowance when adjusted net income exceeds £118,880. For 2014/15 the allowance ceases when adjusted net income exceeds £120,000.

Comment

The increase in the personal allowance gives more importance to planning before 6 April 2014 where adjusted net income is expected to exceed £100,000. Broadly, adjusted net income is taxable income from all sources, reduced by specific reliefs such as Gift Aid donations and pension contributions.

Tax bands and rates for 2014/15

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is being reduced from £32,010 to £31,865 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies will rise from £41,450 to £41,865 for those who are entitled to the full basic personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% is payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Dividend income is taxed at 10% where it falls within the basic rate band and 32.5% where liable at the higher rate of tax. Where income exceeds £150,000, dividends are taxed at 37.5%.

The personal allowance and tax bands for 2015/16

For 2015/16, the personal allowance for those born after 5 April 1948 will be increased to £10,500, and the basic rate limit will be reduced to £31,785. The threshold at which the 40% band applies will rise from £41,865 to £42,285.

From 6 April 2015, the maximum amount of an eligible individual’s savings income that can qualify for the starting rate of tax for savings will be increased to £5,000 from £2,880, and this starting rate will be reduced from 10% to nil. The 10% rate is not available if taxable non-savings income (broadly earnings, pensions, trading profits and property income) exceeds the starting rate limit.

Comment

This will increase the number of savers who are not required to pay tax on savings income, such as bank or building society interest. If a saver’s total taxable income will be below the total of their personal allowance plus the £5,000 starting rate limit then they can register to receive their interest gross using a form R85.

Transferable tax allowance for some

From April 2015 married couples and civil partners may be eligible for a new transferable tax allowance.

The transferable tax allowance will enable spouses and civil partners to transfer a fixed amount of their personal allowance to their spouse. The transferable allowance is £1,050 for 2015/16 being 10% of the personal allowance.

The option to transfer will be available to couples where neither pays tax at the higher or additional rate. If eligible, one spouse will be able to transfer £1,050 of their personal allowance to the other spouse. The transferor’s personal allowance will be reduced by £1,050. It will mean that the transferee will be able to earn £1,050 more before they start paying income tax.

The claim will be made online and entitlement will be from the 2015/16 tax year. Couples will be entitled to the full benefit in their first year of marriage.

Comment

For those couples where one person does not use all of their personal allowance the benefit will be worth up to £210.

New Tax-Free Childcare scheme

In Budget 2013, the Government announced new tax incentives for childcare. Following consultation on the design and operation of the scheme, the Government has announced improvements.

The relief will be 20% of the costs of childcare up to a total of childcare costs of £10,000 per child per year. The scheme will therefore be worth a maximum of £2,000 per child. The original proposal had a cap of 20% of £6,000 per child.

The scheme will be launched in autumn 2015. All children under 12 within the first year of the scheme will be eligible. Under the original proposal only children under five would have been eligible in the first year of the scheme.

To qualify for Tax-Free Childcare all parents in the household must:

  • meet a minimum income level based on working eight hours per week at the National Minimum Wage (around £50 a week at current rates)
  • each earn less than £150,000 a year, and
  • not already be receiving support through Tax Credits or Universal Credit.

The current system of employer supported childcare will continue to be available for current members if they wish to remain in it or they can switch to the new scheme. Employer supported childcare will continue to be open to new joiners until the new scheme is available.

It is proposed that parents register with the Government and open an online account. The scheme will be delivered by HMRC in partnership with National Savings and Investments, the scheme’s account provider. The Government will then ‘top up’ payments into this account at a rate of 20p for every 80p that families pay in.

Comment

Self-employed parents will be able to get support with childcare costs in the Tax-Free Childcare scheme, unlike the current employer supported childcare scheme. To support newly self-employed parents, the Government is introducing a ‘start-up’ period. During this period a newly self-employed parent will not have to earn the minimum income level.

Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs)

Where an individual subscribes for shares in a VCT, income tax relief at 30% of the subscription price is available. The Government has been concerned that particular forms of share buy-backs and reinvestment arrangements offered by VCTs were not in keeping with the intention of the legislation.

The Government will introduce legislation to:

  • prevent VCTs from returning share capital to investors within three years of the end of the accounting period in which the VCT issued the shares
  • restrict an individuals’ entitlement to VCT income tax relief where investments are conditionally linked in any way to a VCT share buy-back, or have been made within six months of a disposal of shares in the same VCT
  • ensure that HMRC can withdraw tax relief in all cases if VCT shares are disposed of within five years of acquisition.

These changes will take effect from 6 April 2014.

In addition, from the date of Royal Assent, investors will be able to subscribe for shares in a VCT via a nominee.

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS)

SEIS was introduced in 2012 as a way of encouraging equity investment in small companies. This relief was originally introduced for a period of five years and has now been made permanent in respect of both the income and capital gains tax reliefs applicable.

Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)

From 6 April 2014 the overall ISA savings limit will be increased from £11,520 to £11,880 of which £5,940 can be invested in cash. From 1 July 2014 ISAs will be reformed into a simpler product, the ‘New ISA’ (NISA) and all existing ISAs will become NISAs.

NISAs

From 1 July 2014 the overall annual subscription limit for these accounts will be increased to £15,000 for 2014/15. Special rules apply if investments are made before 1 July 2014. Investments for 2014/15 cannot exceed £15,000 in total.

Savers will also be able to subscribe this full amount to a cash account (currently only 50% of the overall ISA limit can be saved in cash). Under the NISA, investors will also have new rights to transfer their investments from a stocks and shares to a cash account.

There are also changes to the rules on the investments that can be held in a NISA, so that a wider range of securities to include certain retail bonds with less than five years before maturity can be invested. In addition, Core Capital Deferred Shares issued by building societies will become eligible to be held in a NISA, Junior ISA or Child Trust Fund (CTF).

Comment

These measures are part of a broader package of changes to support savers. In particular they will increase the choice and flexibility available to savers in tax advantaged products.

Junior ISA and CTF

The annual subscription limit for Junior ISA and CTF accounts will increase from £3,720 to £3,840 from 6 April 2014. From 1 July 2014 the amount that can be subscribed to a child’s Junior ISA or CTF for 2014/15 will also be increased to £4,000.

The Government has decided that a transfer of savings from a CTF to a Junior ISA should be permitted at the request of the registered contact for the CTF. It is expected that the first transfers will be possible by April 2015.

Social investment tax relief

The Government will introduce a new tax relief of 30% for individuals investing in equity or certain debt investments in social enterprises with effect from 6 April 2014. Organisations which are charities, community interest companies (CICs) or community benefit societies will be eligible.

The tax relief available to an individual has a similar design to investments by individuals in an Enterprise Investment Scheme company. Draft guidance on the reliefs is expected to be published later this month.

Comment

CICs are limited companies that provide benefits to the community and the legal form has only been available since 2005. The reason behind the development of CICs was the lack of legal structures for non-charitable social enterprises. Community benefit societies are incorporated industrial and provident societies where profits are returned to the community for its benefit.

The Government wants to make the UK one of the easiest places in the world to invest in social enterprises.

Pension changes

The Chancellor has announced a range of significant measures to bring greater flexibility to individuals who want to access funds in defined contribution pension schemes. Some changes to the current restrictive rules will come into effect from 27 March 2014 whilst further measures will follow in April 2015 after a period of consultation.

Pensions – immediate measures

The immediate measures come into effect from 27 March and cover four broad areas.

Capped drawdown. An individual aged 55 or over can opt for a drawdown pension which allows them to extract amounts from the pension fund which is treated as income for the relevant year. The maximum amount of drawdown is fixed to ensure that the fund is not cleared too quickly. The cap is based on 120% of a notional annuity rate set by the Government Actuary. The cap will be increased to 150%.

Flexible drawdown. Where an individual aged 55 or over can demonstrate that they have pension income (including the state pension) of £20,000 per annum or more they can ignore the drawdown cap and can take whatever amount they wish. Tax will be payable at their marginal rate. The income limit is to be reduced to £12,000 per annum.

Trivial commutation. At present an individual aged 60 or over who has total pensions savings of £18,000 or below can withdraw this as a lump sum. The limit will be increased to £30,000.

Small pots. The Government will increase the amount for small individual pension pots that can be taken as a lump sum regardless of total pension wealth from £2,000 to £10,000. They will also increase the number of small pension pots that can be taken as lump sums from two to three.

Pensions – changes to come

The Government plans to bring even greater flexibility into the pension system from April 2015. In effect an individual will be able to choose what they want to do with their defined contribution pension fund.

  • If they want to draw out all of the fund on retirement they will be able to do so. The tax free element will be 25% of the sum and the balance will be taxed as income in that year.
  • If they wish to buy an annuity they will be able to do so.
  • If they wish to opt for a drawdown arrangement they will be able to do this without any restriction either in the form of a cap or a minimum income limit.

These changes will be subject to a consultation.

Two other important changes will also be made:

  • pension providers and pension trustees will be required to provide free and impartial advice to all individuals approaching retirement so that they can make an informed choice of the options available to them
  • the minimum retirement age for pension schemes will rise to 57 years in 2028 when the state pension age rises to 67 years.

Comment

The Government has indicated that individuals approaching retirement should be trusted to make their own decisions as to what to do with their pension funds and not be restricted by legal requirements. The greater range of options will mean that getting the right advice at the point of retirement will be even more important.

Pension liberation

The Government is concerned about schemes which are intended to encourage people to access their pension funds before they reach retirement and use the funds for other purposes. A range of measures are being introduced to combat these schemes. The measures, generally take effect from 20 March 2014.

With effect from 1 September 2014 a further measure will allow HMRC to refuse to register pension schemes where they believe that the scheme administrator is not fit and proper and the scheme has been established for purposes other than providing pension benefits.

Business Tax

Corporation tax rates

The main rate of corporation tax will be 21% from 1 April 2014. The current rate is 23%. From 1 April 2015 the main rate of corporation tax will be reduced to 20% and unified with the small profits rate.

The small profits rate will therefore remain at 20% until then.

Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)

The AIA provides a 100% deduction for the cost of most plant and machinery (not cars) purchased by a business up to an annual limit and is available to most businesses. Where businesses spend more than the annual limit, any additional qualifying expenditure generally attracts an annual writing down allowance of only 18% or 8% depending on the type of asset.

The maximum amount of the AIA was increased to £250,000 from £25,000 for the period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014. The amount of the AIA is further increased to £500,000 from 1 April 2014 for companies or 6 April 2014 for unincorporated businesses until 31 December 2015. The AIA will return to £25,000 after this date.

Comment

The increased AIA will mean that up to 99.8% of businesses could receive 100% upfront relief on their qualifying investment in plant and machinery. For example a single company with a 12 month accounting period to 31 December 2014 could obtain overall relief for the period of £437,500 (£250,000 x 3/12 plus £500,000 x 9/12). There is a restriction of £250,000 for expenditure incurred in that part of the accounting period which falls before 1 April 2014.

Members of Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)

Since their introduction in 2000, LLPs have become increasingly popular as a vehicle for carrying on a wide variety of businesses. The LLP is a unique entity as it combines limited liability for its members with the tax treatment of a traditional partnership. Individual members are currently deemed to be self-employed for income tax purposes and are taxed as such on their respective profit shares.

It is proposed to reclassify some members of an LLP from self-employment to employees of the LLP. As a consequence employer’s National Insurance Contributions will be due and PAYE will need to be applied to the ‘remuneration’ of the member from the LLP.

A member is potentially a salaried member if ‘Condition A’ is satisfied. However if caught by Condition A there are two further conditions which, if either apply, will result in the member not being treated as a salaried member.

The main part of Condition A is a test of whether it is reasonable to expect that at least 80% of the total amount payable by the LLP to the member will be ‘disguised salary’.

Amounts which vary by reference to the overall amount of profits of the LLP are not disguised salary. A disguised salary would include for example a salary or a guaranteed profit share. Whether a bonus based on personal performance is disguised salary will depend on the precise circumstance. For example, a bonus based only on the performance of the individual is not a profit share. A performance bonus calculated by reference to the LLP’s profits is not disguised salary.

However, a member is not caught if either of the following apply:

  • the individual has a significant influence in the running of the business as a whole, or
  • the individual has invested capital in the LLP that is at least 25% of their expected income from the LLP.

The new regime will come into force on 6 April 2014. The tests will need to be applied at that date for existing members. For the capital invested rule, the measurement of capital will include amounts the member has undertaken to contribute by 5 July 2014.

Comment

Many professional firms are now LLPs. The potential risk is that some junior members with a significant fixed element to their profit share may be treated for tax purposes as employees unless their contractual arrangements with the LLP are modified.

Those LLPs potentially affected may wish to consider increasing member capital contributions to allow the capital invested rule to be satisfied. Undertakings made by members by 6 April 2014 (and actually contributed by 5 July 2014) will be taken into account.

Employment intermediaries and ‘false self-employment’

The Government considers that employment intermediaries are increasingly being used to disguise employment as self-employment. The largest business sector affected will be the construction industry. However, there are other sectors such as the driving, catering and security industries where there is evidence of existing permanent employees being taken out of direct employment and being moved into false self-employment arrangements involving intermediaries.

The central proposal is to make a change to the agency legislation. If the agency legislation applies, payments received by a worker are treated as being in consequence of an employment between the intermediary (agency) and worker. This means that the intermediary must deduct PAYE and NIC.

Currently the agency legislation only applies to workers providing their services under the terms of an agency contract. This is defined as:

‘A contract made between the worker and the agency under the terms of which the worker is obliged to personally provide services to the client.’

This has led intermediaries to set up contracts which allow the worker to send someone else to do their job and thus it is argued that the worker is not obliged to personally provide services.

The Government proposes removing the obligation for the worker to provide their services personally. Instead the proposal is that the agency legislation will apply where the worker is:

  • subject to (or to the right of) control, supervision or direction as to the manner in which the duties are carried out
  • providing their services personally
  • remunerated as a consequence of providing their services
  • receiving remuneration not already taxed as employment income.

The legislation will be amended with effect from 6 April 2014.

It is proposed that the legislation will be supported by record keeping and statutory returns requirements. The intermediary will need to submit a quarterly electronic return containing details of any workers it has placed for whom it is not deducting PAYE and NIC. The aim of this requirement is to allow HMRC to identify possible cases of non-compliance with the new agency legislation.

The record keeping and returns requirements will come into force from 6 April 2015.

Comment

The use of intermediaries to facilitate false self-employment started in the construction industry as a way to reduce the risk to contractors of incorrectly engaging workers on a self-employed basis. The Government considers that around 200,000 workers in the construction sector are engaged through intermediaries.

Community Amateur Sports Club (CASC)

The Community Amateur Sports Club (CASC) scheme provides a number of tax reliefs, similar to those available to charities, to support amateur sports clubs. For example an individual can make a donation to a CASC as Gift Aid.

The Finance Bill 2014 will include provisions to extend corporate Gift Aid to donations of money made by companies to CASCs. This will allow companies to claim tax relief on qualifying donations they make on or after 1 April 2014.

Comment

The corporate Gift Aid provisions will not only encourage companies to make donations to clubs which are registered as CASCs but will also encourage clubs with high levels of commercial trading to potentially benefit from CASC status. A club with significant trading receipts may well not qualify for CASC status because of the trading receipts. It could however set up a trading subsidiary and donate the profits to the club. The donation received by the club will not be treated as trading receipts and thus the club could apply for CASC status. The new Gift Aid relief will eliminate the corporation tax charge on the profits of the company.

Research and Development (R&D) relief

R&D relief gives additional tax relief to companies for expenditure incurred on R&D projects that seek to achieve an advance in science or technology. For an SME company which incurs losses when conducting R&D activity a tax credit can be claimed by way of a cash sum paid by HMRC. From 1 April 2014 the rate of the R&D payable tax credit will be increased from 11% to 14.5%.

Business Premises Renovation Allowance (BPRA)

BPRA provides for 100% tax relief on expenditure in bringing business premises in disadvantaged areas back into business use. Following a review of BPRA, the Government will make changes to clarify the type of expenditure which qualifies and other modifications to make it more certain in its application. The changes are to take effect from April 2014.

Enterprise Zones and capital allowances

Subject to certain conditions being met, 100% enhanced capital allowances are available for expenditure incurred by companies on qualifying plant or machinery for use primarily in designated sites within Enterprise Zones. The qualifying period was due to expire on 31 March 2017 and is proposed to be extended to 31 March 2020.

Mineral Extraction Allowance

Mineral exploration and access expenditure attracts an annual 25% capital allowance relief (100% for oil and gas) whereas the acquisition of a mineral asset only attracts 10% relief annually. Expenditure on successful planning permission costs is to be treated as mineral exploration and access rather than as expenditure on acquiring a mineral asset. This applies to expenditure incurred from the date of Royal Assent.

Employment Taxes

Employer provided cars

The scale of charges for working out the taxable benefit for an employee who has use of an employer provided car are now announced well in advance. From 6 April 2014, the bands used to work out the taxable benefit remain the same but the percentage applied by each band goes up by 1%. There is an overriding maximum charge of 35% of the list price of the car. From 6 April 2015, the percentage applied by each band goes up by a further 2% and the maximum charge is increased to 37%.

Comment

These increases have the perverse effect of discouraging retention of the same car. New cars will often have lower CO2 emissions than the equivalent model purchased by the employer, say three years ago. Particular attention should be paid to the benefit increase from 6 April 2015

Exemption threshold for employment-related loans

Where an employer provides an employee with a cheap or interest free loan they have to report notional interest on the loan at 4% per annum on the form P11D. Where the balance of the loan is no more than £5,000 throughout the tax year no benefit is reportable.

The exemption applies if the total balance, at any point in the tax year, does not exceed the limit of £5,000 and includes the total of low cost or interest free loans, or notional loans arising from the provision of employment-related securities.

From 6 April 2014 where the total outstanding balances on all such loans do not exceed £10,000 at any time in the tax year, there will not be a tax charge and employers will no longer be required to report the benefit to HMRC.

Comment

This change reflects the increase in the cost of commuting for an employee and allows the employer to provide finance for the purchase of season tickets for rail fares.

National Insurance – £2,000 employment allowance

The Government has introduced an allowance of up to £2,000 per year for many employers to be offset against their employer Class 1 National Insurance Contributions (NIC) liability from 6 April 2014. The legislation is contained in the National Insurance Contributions Act 2014.

There will be some exceptions for employer Class 1 liabilities including liabilities arising from:

  • a person who is employed (wholly or partly) for purposes connected with the employer’s personal, family or household affairs
  • the carrying out of functions either wholly or mainly of a public nature (unless charitable status applies), for example NHS services and General Practitioner services
  • employer contributions deemed to arise under IR35 for personal service companies.

There are also rules to limit the employment allowance to a total of £2,000 where there are ‘connected’ employers. For example, two companies are connected with each other if one company controls the other company.

The allowance is limited to the employer Class 1 NIC liability if that is less than £2,000.

The allowance will be claimed as part of the normal payroll process. The employer’s payment of PAYE and NIC will be reduced each month to the extent it includes an employer Class 1 NIC liability until the £2,000 limit has been reached.

Employer NIC for the under 21s

From April 2015 the Government will abolish employer NIC for those under the age of 21. This exemption will not apply to those earning more than the Upper Earnings Limit, which is £42,285 per annum for 2015/16. Employer NIC will be liable as normal beyond this limit.

Employee ownership

Following a consultation the Government will introduce three new tax reliefs to encourage and promote indirect employee ownership. The reliefs are as follows:

  • From 6 April 2014 disposals of shares that result in a controlling interest in a company being held by an employee ownership trust will be relieved from CGT.
  • Transfers of shares and other assets to employee ownership trusts will also be exempt from inheritance tax providing certain conditions are met.
  • From 1 October 2014 bonus payments made to employees of indirectly employee owned companies which are controlled by an employee ownership trust will be exempt from income tax up to a cap of £3,600 per annum.

Real Time Information (RTI) late filing penalties

RTI requires employers operating PAYE to report information on employees’ pay and deductions in ‘real time’ to HMRC. Under RTI employers are obliged to tell HMRC about payments they make to their employees, on or before the date payments are made. Employers continue to pay over to HMRC the sums deducted from their employees under the PAYE system either monthly, quarterly or annually.

HMRC are introducing automatic in-year penalties for RTI to encourage compliance with the information and payment obligations.

In essence late filing penalties will apply to each PAYE scheme, with the size of the penalty based on the number of employees in the scheme. It is proposed that monthly penalties of between £100 and £400 will apply to micro, small, medium and large employers.

Each scheme will be subject to only one late filing penalty each month regardless of the number of returns submitted late in the month. There will be one unpenalised default each year with all subsequent defaults attracting a penalty.

This regime will start in October 2014.

Another change is more imminent. For tax years 2014/15 onwards, HMRC will charge daily interest on all unpaid amounts from the due and payable date to the date of payment, and will raise the charge when payment in full has been made.

Capital Taxes

CGT rates

The current rates of CGT are 18% to the extent that any income tax basic rate band is available and 28% thereafter. The rate for disposals qualifying for Entrepreneurs’ Relief is 10% with a lifetime limit of £10 million for each individual.

CGT annual exemption

The CGT annual exemption is £10,900 for 2013/14 and will be increased to £11,000 for 2014/15.

CGT – Private Residence Relief

A gain arising on a property which has been an individual’s private residence throughout their period of ownership is exempt from CGT. There are deemed period of occupation rules which may help to provide an exemption from CGT even if the individual was not living in the property at the time. This may mean the individual is accruing private residence relief on another property at the same time.

The final period exemption applies to a property that has been an individual’s private residence at some time even though they may not be living in the property at the time of disposal.

For disposals on or after 6 April 2014 the final period exemption will be reduced from 36 months to 18 months. There may be exceptions for disabled individuals and long term residents in care homes.

CGT – non-residents and UK residential property

From April 2015 a CGT charge will be introduced on future gains made by non-residents disposing of UK residential property. A consultation on how best to introduce this will be published shortly.

Business roll-over relief

Roll-over relief allows CGT to be deferred on gains made on certain qualifying assets where the proceeds are used to purchase other qualifying assets within a specified period of time. With effect from 20 December 2013 a payment entitlement under the new EU Basic Payment Scheme for farmers will become a qualifying asset.

IHT nil rate band

The IHT nil rate band remains frozen at £325,000 until 5 April 2018.

IHT exemption for emergency service personnel

The Government will consult on extending the existing IHT exemption for members of the armed forces whose death is caused or hastened by injury while on active service to members of the emergency services.

Changes to the trust IHT regime

Certain trusts, known as ‘relevant property trusts’, provide a mechanism to allow assets to be held outside of an individual’s estate for the purpose of calculating a 40% IHT liability on the death of an individual. The downside is that there are three potential points of IHT charge on relevant property trusts:

  • a transfer of assets into the trust is a chargeable transfer in both lifetime and on death
  • a charge has to be calculated on the value of the assets in the trust on each ten-year anniversary of the creation of the trust
  • an exit charge arises when assets are effectively transferred out of the trust.

The calculation of the latter two charges is currently a complex process which can take a significant amount of time to compute for very little tax yield. HMRC therefore wants to simplify the process and will consult on proposals to take effect in 2015.

Two changes will however be introduced in Finance Bill 2014:

  • simplification of filing and payment dates for IHT relevant property trust charges
  • income arising in such trusts which remains undistributed for more than five years may be treated as part of the trust capital when calculating the ten-year anniversary charge.

Comment

Part of the price of the tax simplification proposals will be that some planning techniques where an individual creates more than one relevant property trust will no longer work. For example, a nil rate band that may be currently available for each trust may, in future, need to be split between the trusts resulting in higher IHT charges

IHT anti-avoidance

In 2013 measures were introduced to restrict the use of liabilities to reduce IHT liability where loans were used to purchase assets which are excluded property for IHT purposes. A common situation which was blocked was the use of loans to purchase assets outside the UK which were held by a non-domiciled individual. A loophole has been spotted where a non-domiciled individual holds a foreign currency account in a UK bank. Such an asset is not chargeable to IHT but is not excluded property. That loophole will now be blocked by treating such an account as if it were excluded property.

Residential property held through a company

A range of measures exist to discourage the holding of residential property in the UK via companies and other non-natural persons. Specifically where the property has a value of at least £2 million:

  • stamp duty land tax (SDLT) is payable at 15% on acquisition
  • an annual tax on dwellings (ATED) applies at a fixed amount depending on value, and
  • CGT at 28% is payable on a proportion of gains.

For SDLT the value limit is being reduced to £500,000 for acquisitions on or after 20 March 2014.

The Government will introduce two new bands for ATED. Residential properties worth over £1 million and up to £2 million will be brought into the charge with effect from 1 April 2015. Properties worth over £500,000 and up to £1 million will be brought into the charge with effect from 1 April 2016.

The related CGT charge on disposals of properties liable to ATED will be extended to residential properties worth over £1 million with effect from 6 April 2015 and for residential properties worth over £500,000 from 6 April 2016.

Comment

The Government is determined to drive out the use of so-called ‘envelopes’ for the ownership of residential property in the UK. The major group affected will be non-domiciled individuals who have historically used overseas companies to hold UK residential property.

Other Matters

VAT prompt payment discounts

Legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2014 to amend the UK VAT legislation on prompt payment discounts so that it is aligned with EU legislation.

Under the current rules, suppliers account for VAT on the discounted price offered for prompt payment, even when that discount is not taken up. This amendment will ensure that VAT is accounted for on the full actual consideration paid for goods and services where prompt payment discounts are offered.

The measure will have effect for supplies made from 1 April 2015 although the measure will apply from 1 May 2014 for telecommunication and broadcasting supplies. The earlier date may also apply to other specified supplies.

VAT reverse charge for gas and electricity

A reverse charge for wholesale supplies of gas and electricity will be introduced which means customers will be liable to account for VAT rather than the supplier. The measure does not apply to domestic supplies or to businesses not registered, or liable to be registered for VAT.

The Government will informally consult on the timing with those affected, with a view to laying the necessary secondary legislation at the earliest opportunity thereafter. The measure has been announced to remove the opportunity for fraudsters to charge VAT and then go missing before the VAT has been paid over to HMRC.

Requirement for users of failed avoidance schemes

It is proposed to give HMRC the power to give notice to taxpayers who have used avoidance schemes, which are defeated in another party’s litigation, that taxpayers should amend their returns or settle their disputes with HMRC accordingly. Taxpayers who decide not to settle their case will risk a penalty.

This change will take effect from Royal Assent.

Accelerated payments in tax avoidance cases

Following consultation, further legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2014 to extend accelerated payment of tax to users of schemes disclosed under the Disclosure of Tax Avoidance Schemes (DOTAS) rules, and to taxpayers involved in schemes subject to counteraction under the General Anti-Abuse Rule (GAAR), so that the amount in dispute is held by HMRC whilst the dispute is resolved.

These changes will take effect from Royal Assent.

 

This summary is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the main proposals announced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in his Budget Statement, and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this summary can be accepted by the authors or the firm.