Budget 2016 – An Overview

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The Budget 2016

George Osborne presented the first Spring Budget of this Parliament on Wednesday 16 March 2016.

In his speech the Chancellor reported on ‘an economy set to grow faster than any other major advanced economy in the world’.

Towards the end of last year the government issued the majority of the clauses, in draft, of Finance Bill 2016 together with updates on consultations. Publication of draft Finance Bill clauses is now an established way in which tax policy is developed, communicated and legislated.

The Budget updates some of these previous announcements and also proposes further measures. Some of these changes apply immediately, others in April 2016 and some take effect at a later date.

Our summary focuses on the issues likely to affect you, your family and your business. To help you decipher what was said we have included our own comments. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact us for advice.

Main Budget tax proposals

Our summary concentrates on the tax measures which include:

  • reductions in the rates of capital gains tax
  • introduction of a Lifetime ISA for under 40s
  • changes to Entrepreneurs’ Relief
  • abolition of Class 2 NIC
  • reduction in the corporation tax rate
  • reforms to corporate tax losses.

The Budget proposals may be subject to amendment in a Finance Act. You should contact us before taking any action as a result of the contents of this summary.

This summary is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the main proposals announced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in his Budget Statement, and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this summary can be accepted by the authors or the firm.

Personal Tax

The personal allowance

For those born after 5 April 1938 the personal allowance is currently £10,600. Those born before 6 April 1938 have a slightly higher allowance. Legislation has already been enacted to increase the personal allowance to £11,000 in 2016/17. From 2016/17 onwards one personal allowance will apply regardless of age.


Not everyone has the benefit of the full personal allowance. There is a reduction in the personal allowance for those with ‘adjusted net income’ over £100,000 which is £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000. So for 2015/16 there is no personal allowance where adjusted net income exceeds £121,200 (£122,000 for 2016/17).

Tax bands and rates

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is £31,785 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies is £42,385 for those who are entitled to the full basic personal allowance.

Legislation has already been enacted to increase the basic rate limit to £32,000 for 2016/17. The higher rate threshold will therefore rise to £43,000 in 2016/17 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

The additional rate of tax of 45% remains payable on taxable income above £150,000.

Tax bands and personal allowance for 2017/18

The Chancellor has announced that the personal allowance will be increased to £11,500 and the basic rate limit increased to £33,500 for 2017/18. The higher rate threshold will therefore rise to £45,000 for those entitled to the full personal allowance.

Tax bands and rates – dividends

Currently, when a dividend is paid to an individual, it is subject to different tax rates compared to other income due to a 10% notional tax credit being added to the dividend. So for an individual who has dividend income which falls into the basic rate band the effective tax rate is nil as the 10% tax credit covers the 10% tax liability. For higher rate and additional rate taxpayers, the effective tax rates on a dividend receipt are 25% and 30.6% respectively.

To determine which tax band dividends fall into, dividends are treated as the last type of income to be taxed.

From 6 April 2016:

  • the 10% dividend tax credit is abolished with the result that the cash dividend received will be the gross amount potentially subject to tax
  • a new Dividend Tax Allowance charges the first £5,000 of dividends received in a tax year at 0%
  • for dividends above £5,000, new rates of tax on dividend income will be 7.5% for basic rate taxpayers, 32.5% for higher rate taxpayers and 38.1% for additional rate taxpayers.



Many individuals do not have £5,000 of dividend income so are potential winners in the new regime. The removal of any tax on dividends up to £5,000 increases the attractiveness of holding some investments which provide dividend returns rather than interest receipts. Use can then also be made of the CGT annual exemption by selective selling of investments.

Basic rate taxpayers in particular need to appreciate that all dividends received still form part of the total income of an individual. If dividends above £5,000 are received, the first £5,000 will use up some or all of any basic rate band available. The element of dividends above £5,000 which are taxable may well therefore be taxed at 32.5%.

Tax on savings income

Savings income is income such as bank and building society interest. In 2015/16 some individuals qualify for a 0% starting rate of tax on savings income up to £5,000. However, the rate is not available if taxable non-savings income (broadly earnings, pensions, trading profits and property income) exceeds the starting rate limit.

The starting rate limit remains at £5,000 for 2016/17.

In addition, from 2016/17 the Savings Allowance (SA) will apply to savings income. Income within the SA will be taxed at a new 0% rate (the ‘savings nil rate’). However, the available SA in a tax year will depend on the individual’s marginal rate of income tax. Individuals taxed at up to the basic rate of tax will have an SA of £1,000.

For higher rate taxpayers, the SA will be £500 whilst no SA is due to additional rate taxpayers.

Alongside the introduction of the SA, banks and building societies will cease to deduct tax from account interest they pay to customers.


The new SA will exempt from tax interest receipts for many taxpayers. The government anticipates that around 95% of taxpayers will not have any tax to pay on their savings income. However, the allowance works in a complex way. For example, a taxpayer whose total non-savings income is near to £43,000 in 2016/17 (the point from which higher rate taxes are payable) needs to be aware that savings income is still added to other income to determine whether the SA is £1,000 or £500.

Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs)

The overall ISA savings limit is £15,240 for 2015/16 and will remain at this figure for 2016/17.

Two changes are proposed with effect from 6 April 2016. The following changes will be made to the existing ISA Regulations:

  • Savers will be allowed to replace cash they have withdrawn from their account earlier in a tax year, without this replacement counting towards the annual ISA limit for that year. This flexibility will be available in relation to both current year and earlier years’ ISA savings where provided for in the terms and conditions of a ‘flexible ISA’.
  • A third ISA, the Innovative Finance ISA, is being introduced for loans arranged via a peer to peer (P2P) platform.

The total an individual can save each year into all ISAs will be increased from £15,240 to £20,000 from April 2017.

Lifetime ISA

A new Lifetime ISA will be available from April 2017 for adults under the age of 40. Individuals will be able to contribute up to £4,000 per year and receive a 25% bonus from the government. Funds, including the government bonus, can be used to buy a first home at any time from 12 months after opening the account, and can be withdrawn from age 60 completely tax-free.

Further details of the new account, which will be available from 2017, are as follows:

  • Any savings an individual puts into the account before their 50th birthday will receive an added 25% bonus from the government.
  • There is no maximum monthly contribution and up to £4,000 a year can be saved into a Lifetime ISA.
  • The savings and bonus can be used towards a deposit on a first home worth up to £450,000 across the country.
  • Accounts are limited to one per person rather than one per home, so two first time buyers can both receive a bonus when buying together.
  • Where an individual already has a Help to Buy ISA they will be able to transfer those savings into the Lifetime ISA in 2017, or continue saving into both. However only the bonus from one account can be used to buy a house.
  • Where the funds are withdrawn at any time before the account holder is aged 60 they will lose the government bonus (and any interest or growth on this) and will also have to pay a 5% charge.
  • After the account holder’s 60th birthday they will be able to take all the savings tax-free.


The new Lifetime ISA is designed to allow flexible saving for first time buyers and those wishing to save for their retirement. The Chancellor said in his speech:

‘My pension reforms have always been about giving people more freedom and more choice.

So faced with the truth that young people aren’t saving enough, I am today providing a different answer to the same problem.’

Help to Save

The government has announced the introduction of a new type of savings account aimed at low income working households.

Individuals in low income working households will be able to save up to £50 a month into a Help to Save account and receive a 50% government bonus after two years. Account holders can then choose to continue saving under the scheme for a further two years. The scheme will be open to all adults in receipt of Universal Credit with minimum weekly household earnings equivalent to 16 hours at the National Living Wage or those in receipt of Working Tax Credits.

Accounts will be available no later than April 2018.

Pensions consultation and reform

The government consultation ‘Strengthening the incentive to save’ looked at the way pensions are taxed. The consultation found that while the current system gives everyone an incentive to save into a pension, and people like the 25% tax free lump sum, it is also inflexible and poorly understood. Young people in particular are not saving enough, often because they feel they have to choose between saving for their first home and saving for retirement.


The Chancellor said in his speech:

Over the past year we’ve consulted widely on whether we should make compulsory changes to the pension tax system. But it was clear there is no consensus.’

The Chancellor is introducing the Lifetime ISA as a vehicle for younger people to save.

Pensions advice

The Financial Advice Market Review (FAMR) aims to support the provision of affordable and accessible advice. FAMR was a joint review between the Financial Conduct Authority and Her Majesty’s Treasury, and its recommendations were published on 14 March 2016.

The government commits to implement all of the recommendations for which it is responsible, and will:

  • Consult on introducing a single clear definition of financial advice to remove regulatory uncertainty and ensure that firms can offer consumers the help they need.
  • Increase the existing £150 Income Tax and National Insurance relief for employer arranged pension advice to £500. The new exemption will ensure that the first £500 of any advice received is eligible for the relief. It will be available from April 2017.
  • Consult on introducing a Pensions Advice Allowance. This will allow people before the age of 55 to withdraw up to £500 tax free from their defined contribution pension to redeem against the cost of financial advice. The exact age at which people can do this will be determined through consultation. This means that a basic rate taxpayer could save £100 on the cost of financial advice.

The government will also restructure the delivery of public financial guidance to make it more effective.

Phased rollout of Tax-Free Childcare

The government has announced it will introduce Tax-Free Childcare in early 2017. Tax-Free Childcare will be gradually rolled out to children under 12 with the parents of the youngest children being able to enter the scheme first. The scheme will be open to all eligible parents by the end of 2017.

The existing scheme, Employer-Supported Childcare, will remain open to new entrants until April 2018 to support the transition between the schemes.

Business Tax

Corporation tax rates

The main rate of corporation tax is currently 20% and this rate will continue for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2016. The main rate of corporation tax will then be reduced as follows:

  • 19% for the Financial Years beginning on 1 April 2017, 1 April 2018 and 1 April 2019
  • 17% for the Financial Year beginning on 1 April 2020.

Corporate tax loss relief

The government will introduce two reforms to corporate tax losses from April 2017. First, losses arising on or after 1 April 2017 will be useable, when carried forward, against profits from other income streams or other companies within a group. Second, from 1 April 2017, companies will only be able to use losses carried forward against up to 50% of their profits above £5 million. For groups, the £5 million allowance will apply to the group.

Capital allowances on business cars

The current 100% first year allowance (FYA) on businesses purchasing low emission cars will be extended to April 2021. A low emission car is one where the CO2 emissions do not exceed 75 gm/km and this threshold will fall to 50 gm/km from April 2018. In addition, the CO2 emission threshold for the main rate of capital allowances for business cars will reduce from 130 gm/km to 110 gm/km from April 2018.

Corporation tax payment dates

At the Summer Budget 2015, the government announced it would bring forward corporation tax payment dates for companies with taxable profits over £20 million. This measure has been deferred by two years and will now apply to accounting periods starting on or after 1 April 2019.

Loans to participators

The 25% rate of tax charged on loans to participators and other arrangements by close companies will increase to 32.5%.  This applies to loans made and benefits conferred on or after 6 April 2016. This increased rate mirrors the dividend upper rate. The government has noted that this will prevent individuals gaining a tax advantage by taking loans or making other arrangements to extract value from their company rather than remuneration or dividends.

Enterprise Zones – enhanced capital allowances

This measure extends the period in which businesses investing in new plant and machinery in ECA sites in Enterprise Zones can qualify for 100% capital allowances to eight years.

Removal of statutory renewals allowance

The government will withdraw the statutory renewals allowance, which provides businesses with tax relief for the cost of replacing tools. The changes ensure that tax relief for expenditure incurred on the replacement of tools will be obtained under the same rules as those which apply to other capital equipment. Businesses will be able to claim tax relief under the normal capital allowance regime or, in the case of residential landlords, for the cost of replacing domestic items such as furnishings and appliances. The withdrawal will come into effect for expenditure on or after 6 April 2016 for income tax purposes and from 1 April 2016 for corporation tax.

Company distributions

Legislation will be introduced with effect from 6 April 2016 to:

  • amend the Transactions in Securities legislation, which is designed to prevent tax advantages in certain circumstances. The amendments, for example, include liquidations as potentially coming within the scope of the legislation
  • introduce a new Targeted Anti-Avoidance Rule, which would prevent some distributions in a liquidation being taxed as capital, where certain conditions are met and there is an intention to gain a tax advantage.


In some situations shareholders of close companies can receive a payment from the company which is taxed as a capital gain instead of as dividend income. If Entrepreneurs’ Relief is available the gain will be subject to only 10% tax. The government is concerned that the new dividend tax rates introduced from 6 April 2016 will encourage shareholders to convert to capital what might otherwise be taxed as income.

Abolition of Class 2 National Insurance Contributions (NIC)

The government will abolish Class 2 NIC from April 2018. The government will publish its response to the recent consultation on state benefit entitlement for the self-employed in due course. This will set out details of how the self-employed will access contributory benefits after Class 2 is abolished.

Property and trading income allowances

From April 2017, the government will introduce a new £1,000 allowance for property and trading income. Individuals with property or trading income below £1,000 will no longer need to declare or pay tax on that income. Those with income above the allowance will be able to calculate their taxable profit either by deducting their expenses in the normal way or by simply deducting the relevant allowance.

Making tax digital

From 2018 businesses, self-employed people and landlords who are keeping records digitally and providing regular digital updates to HMRC will be able to adopt pay-as-you-go tax payments. This will enable them to choose payment patterns that suit them and better manage their cash flow.

Reform of Substantial Shareholding Exemption (SSE)

SSE means that capital gains on corporate share disposals are not subject to UK corporation tax where certain conditions are satisfied. It was introduced in 2002 and was designed to ensure that tax does not act as a disincentive to commercially desirable business sales or group restructuring. There have been significant developments in the UK and international corporate tax landscape since the SSE was first introduced. The government will therefore consult on the extent to which the SSE is still delivering on its original policy objective and whether there could be changes to its detailed design in order to increase its simplicity, coherence and international competitiveness.

Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT)

The rate of PRT will be permanently reduced to zero for all chargeable periods ending after 31 December 2015.


The government will change the deduction of tax at source regime to bring all international royalty payments arising in the UK within the charge to income tax, unless those taxing rights have been given up under a double taxation agreement or the EU Interest and Royalties Directive.

Employment Taxes

NIC for apprentices under 25

From 6 April 2016 employer NICs are 0% for apprentices under 25 who earn less than the upper secondary threshold (UST) which is £827 per week (£43,000 per annum). Employers are liable to 13.8% NIC on pay above the UST. Employee NICs are payable as normal.

An apprentice needs to:

  • be working towards a government recognised apprenticeship in the UK which follows a government approved framework/standard
  • have a written agreement, giving the government recognised apprentice framework or standard, with a start and expected completion date.

Employers need to identify relevant apprentices and generally assign them NIC category letter H to ensure the correct NICs are collected.


The proposals exclude apprenticeships which do not follow government approved frameworks, also known as common law apprenticeships. A similar 0% rate of employer NIC already applies for employees under the age of 21.

Employee benefits and expenses changes from 6 April 2016

From 6 April 2016 a number of changes are introduced relating to the tax treatment of employee benefits in kind and expenses:

  • There will be a statutory exemption for certain expenses, such as travelling and subsistence expenses, reimbursed to an employee. This will replace the current system where employers have to apply for a dispensation to avoid having to report non-taxable expenses (on forms P11D).
  • Employers will be able to include taxable benefits in pay and thus account for PAYE on the benefits. However, in order to payroll benefits for 2016/17, employers will have to register with HMRC for the service before the start of the new tax year. Employers will then not have to include these payrolled benefits on forms P11D.
  • The £8,500 threshold below which employees do not pay income tax on certain benefits in kind will be removed. There will be new exemptions for carers and ministers of religion.


The statutory exemption for reimbursed expenses will mean that all employees will automatically get the tax relief they are due on qualifying expenses payments.

Another option is introduced which allows amounts based on scale rates to be paid or reimbursed, instead of the employee’s actual costs. The rates that can be used are either HMRC approved figures or figures specifically agreed with HMRC in writing.

The approved figures only cover meals purchased by an employee in the course of business travel.

Simplification of the administration of tax on employee benefits and expenses

The government will introduce a package of measures to further simplify the tax administration of employee benefits and expenses by:

  • extending the voluntary payrolling framework to allow employers to account for tax on non-cash vouchers and credit tokens in real time from April 2017
  • consulting on proposals to simplify the process for applying for and agreeing PAYE Settlement Agreements
  • consulting on proposals to align the dates by which an employee has to make a payment to their employer in return for a benefit-in-kind they receive to ‘make good’
  • legislating to ensure that if there is a specific statutory provision for calculating the tax charge on a benefit in kind, this must be used.

Employer provided cars

The scale of charges for working out the taxable benefit for an employee who has use of an employer provided car are now announced well in advance. Most cars are taxed by reference to bands of CO2 emissions. There is a 3% diesel supplement. The maximum charge is capped at 37% of the list price of the car.

From 6 April 2016 there will be a 2% increase in the percentage applied by each band with similar increases in 2017/18 and 2018/19. For 2019/20 the rate will increase by a further 3%.

From 6 April 2017 the appropriate percentage for cars which have neither a CO2 emissions figure nor an engine cylinder capacity, and which cannot produce CO2 emissions in any circumstances by being driven, will be set at 9%. From 6 April 2018 this will be increased to 13%, and from 6 April 2019 to 16%.

Van benefit charge for zero emissions vans

The van benefit charge for 2015/16 is £3,150 increasing to £3,170 in 2016/17.

The government will extend van benefit charge support for zero-emission vans so that from 6 April 2016 the charge will be 20% of the main rate in 2016/17 and 2017/18, and will then increase on a tapered basis to 5 April 2022. The government will review the impact of this incentive at Budget 2018 together with enhanced capital allowances for zero-emission vans.

Taxation of termination payments

From April 2018 the government will tighten the scope of the income tax exemption for termination payments to prevent manipulation.

Termination payments over £30,000 which are subject to income tax will also be subject to employer NIC. The government will undertake a technical consultation on tightening

the scope of the exemption.

Travel and subsistence expenses rules

In September 2015 the government published a discussion document aimed at modernising the tax rules for travel and subsistence (T&S). The government has analysed responses and concluded that, although complex in parts, the current T&S rules are generally well understood and work effectively for the majority of employees and has decided not to make further changes to the T&S rules at this time.

Employment intermediaries and relief for travel and subsistence

As announced at March Budget 2015, the government will introduce legislation in Finance Bill 2016 to restrict tax relief for home to work travel and subsistence expenses for workers engaged through an employment intermediary. This will bring the rules into line with those that apply to employees.

Simplifying the NIC rules

The government will commission the Office of Tax Simplification to review the impact of moving employee NIC to an annual, cumulative and aggregated basis and moving employer NIC to a payroll basis.

Disguised remuneration schemes

The government will introduce a package of measures to tackle the current and historic use of disguised remuneration schemes, which are used to avoid income tax and NIC. Legislation will be included in Finance Bill 2016 which will prevent a relief in the existing legislation from applying where it is used as part of a tax avoidance scheme from Budget Day.

The government will hold a technical consultation on further changes to the legislation which will be included in a future Finance Bill. This will include a new charge on loans paid through disguised remuneration schemes which have not been taxed and are still outstanding on 5 April 2019.

Employee share schemes: simplification of the rules

The government will make a number of technical changes to simplify the tax-advantaged and non-tax-advantaged employee share scheme rules.

Employment Allowance

The NIC Employment Allowance was introduced from 6 April 2014. It is an annual allowance which is available to many employers and can be offset against their employer NIC liability.

From April 2016, the government will increase the NIC Employment Allowance from £2,000 to £3,000 a year. The increase will mean that businesses will be able to employ four workers full time on the new National Living Wage without paying any NIC.

To ensure that the NIC Employment Allowance is focussed on businesses and charities that support employment, from April 2016 companies where the director is the sole employee will no longer be able to claim the Employment Allowance.

Employers who hire an illegal worker face civil penalties from the Home Office. The government will build on this deterrent by removing a year’s Employment Allowance from those receiving civil penalties, starting in 2018.

Salary sacrifice

The government is considering limiting the range of benefits that attract income tax and NIC advantages when provided as part of salary sacrifice schemes. However, the government’s intention is that pension saving, childcare, and health-related benefits such as Cycle to Work should continue to benefit from income tax and NIC relief when provided through salary sacrifice arrangements.

Off-payroll working in the public sector

From April 2017 the government will make public sector bodies and agencies responsible for operating the tax rules that apply to off-payroll working through limited companies in the public sector. The rules will remain unchanged for those working in the private sector. Liability to pay the correct employment taxes will move from the worker’s own company to the public sector body or agency/third party paying the company.

The government will consult on a clearer and simpler set of tests and online tools.

Capital Taxes

Capital gains tax (CGT) rates

The current rates of CGT are 18% to the extent that any income tax basic rate band is available and 28% thereafter. The government is to reduce the higher rate of CGT from 28% to 20% and the basic rate from 18% to 10%. The trust CGT rate will also reduce from 28% to 20%. The 28% and 18% rates will continue to apply for carried interest and for chargeable gains on residential property that do not qualify for private residence relief. In addition, the 28% rate still applies for ATED related chargeable gains accruing to any person (principally companies). These changes will take effect for disposals made on or after 6 April 2016.

The rate for disposals qualifying for Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER) remains at 10% with a lifetime limit of £10 million for each individual.

Example 2016/17

Annie, a higher rate taxpayer, has the following chargeable gains after the annual exemption:

•         Gains eligible for ER £100,000

•         A residential property gain £30,000

•         Other gains £10,000

The ER gain is taxable at 10%. The residential property gain will be taxed at 28% and other gains at 20%.

Goodwill on Incorporation and ER

New rules were introduced from 3 December 2014 which prevent individuals from claiming ER on disposals of goodwill when they transfer their business to a related company in which they, or a member of their family, held any shares whatsoever. This means that CGT became payable on the gain at the normal rates of 18% or 28% rather than 10%.

Revised legislation will be introduced in Finance Bill 2016 to allow ER to be claimed in respect of gains on goodwill where the individual holds less than 5% of the shares, and less than 5% of the voting power, in the acquiring company.

Relief will also be due where an individual holds 5% or more of the shares or voting power if the transfer of the business to the company is part of arrangements for the company to be sold to a new, independent owner.

This measure will have backdated effect and will therefore apply to disposals on or after 3 December 2014.

Associated disposals and ER

New rules were introduced in 2015 which were aimed at combatting abuse of ER. Whilst preventing the abuse, those rules also resulted in relief not being due on ‘associated disposals’ when a business was sold to members of the claimant’s family under normal succession arrangements.

Certain revisions are to be made so that ER will be allowed on a disposal of a privately-held asset when the accompanying disposal of business assets is to a family member.

In addition, under the 2015 rules an associated disposal can only qualify for ER if there is also a material disposal of 5% or more of the claimant’s share in a partnership or holding in a company. Under the proposals this is not to apply where the claimant disposes of the whole of his interest and has previously held a larger stake.

These changes will have a backdated effect for associated disposals made on or after 18 March 2015.

Joint ventures, partnerships and ER

Changes introduced in 2015 to combat abuse of ER also resulted in relief not being due to investors in some types of genuine commercial structures where tax avoidance was not a main motive. Those affected were companies with shares in joint venture companies and corporate partners with shares in trading companies because their investments were reclassified as non-trading activities. ER is only available to companies or partnerships which are predominantly trading so ER status was lost in a number of cases.

To enable genuine commercial structures to qualify for ER, this measure changes the definitions of a ‘trading company’ and a ‘trading group’ which apply for ER. Where the new definitions apply, a company which holds shares in a joint venture company will be treated as carrying on a proportion of the activities of that company corresponding to the investing company’s fractional shareholding in it. Also, the activities of a corporate partner in a firm will be treated as having their true nature (trading or non-trading) when determining whether the company is a trading company.

It will also be a requirement that the person making the disposal on which relief is claimed has at least a 5% interest in the shares of the joint venture company, and effectively controls at least 5% of the voting rights in that company. Where a partnership with a corporate partner is concerned, the person making the disposal must be entitled to at least 5% of the partnership’s assets and profits, and control at least 5% of the voting rights in the corporate partner.

The new definitions mean that, in some cases, whether a company is a trading company or the holding company of a trading group will depend on the size of the claimant’s shareholding in the company.

External investors and ER

ER will be extended to external investors (other than employees or officers of the company) in unlisted trading companies. To qualify for the 10% CGT rate under ‘investors’ relief’ the following conditions will apply:

  • shares must be newly issued and subscribed for by the individual for new consideration
  • be in an unlisted trading company, or an unlisted holding company of a trading group
  • have been issued by the company on or after 17 March 2016 and have been held for a period of three years from 6 April 2016
  • have been held continuously for a period of three years before disposal.

An individual’s qualifying gains for investors’ relief will be subject to a lifetime cap of £10 million.

Capital gains and employee shareholder agreements

The ‘employee shareholder’ was a new employment status made available from 1 September 2013. Employee shareholders who agreed to give up certain statutory employment rights received in exchange at least £2,000 of shares in their employer or parent company free of income tax and national insurance. Qualifying conditions do apply.

Any eventual gains on shares received with an original value of up to £50,000 are CGT free. However, a lifetime limit of £100,000 on the CGT exempt gains is introduced on disposals under Employee Shareholder Agreements entered into after 16 March 2016.

Other Matters

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) and Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT)

The Chancellor announced in the Autumn Statement that new rates of SDLT on purchases of additional residential properties would apply from 1 April 2016. Similar legislation was introduced in the Scottish Parliament for LBTT which applies to property transactions in Scotland. The LBTT legislation has now been enacted.

The new rates will be three percentage points above the current SDLT and LBTT rates. The higher rates will potentially apply if, at the end of the day of the purchase transaction, the individual owns two or more residential properties.

The SDLT proposals were subject to a consultation. The government has now announced:

  • purchasers will have 36 months rather than 18 months to claim a refund of the higher rates if they buy a new main residence before disposing of their previous main residence
  • purchasers will also have 36 months between selling a main residence and replacing it with another main residence without having to pay the higher rates
  • a small share in a property which has been inherited within the 36 months prior to a transaction will not be considered as an additional property when applying the higher rates
  • there will be no exemption from the higher rates for significant investors.


The main target of the higher rates is purchases of buy to let properties or second homes. However, there will be some purchasers who will have to pay the additional charge even though the property purchased will not be a buy to let or a second home. The proposed 36 month rules above will help to remove some transactions from the additional rates (or allow a refund). Care will be needed if an individual already owns, or partly owns, a property and transacts to purchase another property without having disposed of the first property.

LBTT has been enacted with the 18 month periods rather than 36 months.

SDLT on non-residential property

The government will change the calculation of SDLT on freehold and leasehold premium non-residential transactions, on and after 17 March 2016, so the rates apply to the portion of the purchase price within each band. The SDLT rates and thresholds for non-residential freehold and leasehold premiums will also change from the same date.

For new leasehold transactions, SDLT is already charged at each rate on the portion of the net present value (NPV) of the rent which falls within each band. On and after 17 March 2016 a new 2% rate for rent paid under a non-residential lease will be introduced where the NPV of the rent is above £5 million.


The LBTT on non-residential properties in Scotland is already based on a similar system to that proposed for SDLT.

VAT: overseas businesses and online marketplaces

Changes will be made to the existing rules which allow HMRC to direct an overseas business to appoint a VAT representative with joint and several liability. A new provision will then enable HMRC to hold an online marketplace jointly and severally liable for the unpaid VAT of an overseas business that sells goods in the UK via that online marketplace.

The measure will have effect from Royal Assent to Finance Bill 2016.


The objective of this measure is to give HMRC strengthened operational powers to tackle the non-compliance from some overseas businesses that avoid paying UK VAT on sales of goods made to UK consumers via online marketplaces. It is directed at getting overseas businesses, that are or should be VAT registered in the UK, paying VAT due either directly or through a VAT representative.

Business rates

Business rates have been devolved to Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. The Chancellor has announced cuts on business rates for half of all properties in England from 1 April 2017. In particular the government proposes to:

  • Permanently double Small Business Rate Relief (SBRR) from 50% to 100% and increase the thresholds to benefit a greater number of businesses. Businesses with a property with a rateable value of £12,000 and below will receive 100% relief.
  • Increase the threshold for the standard business rates multiplier to a rateable value of £51,000, taking 250,000 smaller properties out of the higher rate.

Insurance Premium Tax

The standard rate of IPT will be increased from 9.5% to 10% with effect from 1 October 2016.

General Anti-Abuse Rule (GAAR)

The government will legislate to introduce a new penalty of 60% of tax due to be charged in all cases successfully tackled by the GAAR. Small changes to the GAAR procedure will be made to improve its ability to tackle marketed avoidance schemes.

New soft drinks industry levy

The government will introduce a new soft drinks industry levy to be paid by producers and importers of soft drinks that contain added sugar. The levy will be charged on volumes according to total sugar content, with a main rate charge for drink above 5 grams of sugar per 100 millilitres and a higher rate for drinks with more than 8 grams of sugar per 100 millilitres. There will be an exclusion for small operators.

It is proposed to introduce the measure from April 2018.


Newsletter – December 2011

eNEWS – December 2011

In this month’s enews we report on some further announcements made following the Autumn Statement.

Please browse through this month’s articles using the links below and contact us if any issues or questions arise.

With best wishes for 2012.



Pensions Auto Enrolment

The Government has confirmed that pensions auto enrolment will commence in Autumn 2012 and all employers will remain within the scope of the rules.

However small businesses, those with less than 50 employees, will be given additional time to prepare for the implementation. The government have confirmed that no small employers are affected by the reforms before the end of this Parliament.

Minister for Pensions Steve Webb said:

‘Our society and economy needs to be based on a foundation of saving, not debt. Automatic enrolment will help millions save, and to not act will leave people poorer in retirement. That is why I am confirming today that automatic enrolment will start on time and all employers will be part of it.

We recognise that small businesses are operating in tough economic times so we are softening the timetable for implementation to give them some additional breathing space. This is a sensible step that ensures long term pension issues are addressed while meeting the short and medium term needs of small business.

We are committed to ensuring the employees of these small businesses get the chance to save and that is why no one will miss out.

Under the revised timeline, small business would begin automatically enrolling their staff in May 2015, instead of the current timing of April 2014. Half of all workers will still be automatically enrolled before the end of this Parliament.’

It is expected that further details will be announced in January 2012 and we will keep you informed of developments.

Internet link: DWP press release

Advisory fuel rates for company cars

New company car advisory fuel rates have been published to take effect from 1 December 2011. HMRC’s website states:

‘These rates apply to all journeys on or after 1 December 2011 until further notice, allowing them to reflect fuel prices more quickly. For one month from the date of change, employers may use either the previous or new current rates, as they choose. Employers may therefore make or require supplementary payments if they so wish, but are under no obligation to do either.’

The advisory fuel rates for journeys undertaken on or after 1 December 2011 are:

Engine size




1400cc or less

15p (15p)

10p (11p)

1401cc – 2000cc

18p (18p)

12p (12p)

Over 2000cc

26p (26p)

18p (18p)

1600cc or less

12p (12p)

1601cc – 2000cc

15p (15p)

Over 2000cc

18p (18p)

Please note that most rates have not changed. However the rate for LPG cars has reduced for those with an engine size of 1400cc or less.

Other points to be aware of about the advisory fuel rates:

  • Employers do not need a dispensation to use these rates.
  • Employees driving employer provided cars are not entitled to use these rates to claim tax relief if employers reimburse them at lower rates. Such claims should be based on the actual costs incurred.
  • The advisory rates are not binding where an employer can demonstrate that the cost of business travel in employer provided cars is higher than the guideline mileage rates. The higher cost would need to be agreed with HMRC under a dispensation.

If you would like to discuss your car policy, please contact us.

Internet link: HMRC advisory fuel rates

Capital allowances in Enterprise Zones

Following the Autumn Statement at the end of November 2011, more information is now available in respect of the proposal to give 100% first year allowances on plant and machinery expenditure for use in some Enterprise Zone areas.

  • The relief will only be available to trading companies.
  • The plant must be new and represent an investment not a replacement of existing plant.
  • The plant must be used primarily in designated assisted areas within Enterprise Zones.
  • The allowance will apply for purchases made from 1 April 2012 up to 31 March 2017.
  • Some businesses and some types of expenditure are specifically excluded from the provisions.

Internet link: Draft rules CA Enterprise Zones

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme

The government has released more information on the new Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS) aimed at smaller companies. The proposals include the following:

  • The relief will initially run from 6 April 2012 until 5 April 2017 but may continue after that date.
  • Income tax relief on a qualifying investment will be 50%.The relief is available to be set against any income tax liability that is due, whether at basic, higher or additional rate.
  • Income tax relief will be withdrawn in certain circumstances including a disposal of the shares within three years.
  • There will be an annual limit of £100,000 investment by an individual.
  • A director may make a qualifying investment but not an employee or an associate of an employee.
  • An individual may not hold more than 30% of the shares in the company.
  • The issuing company must have been incorporated within two years of the date on which the qualifying shares are issued.
  • The company must exist to carry on a qualifying trade.
  • The gross assets of the company (including a proportion of assets of companies which hold at least 25% of the shares in the issuing company) must not exceed £200,000 immediately before the shares are issued.
  • The issuing company must not have more than the equivalent of 25 full-time employees immediately before the shares are issued.
  • The maximum amount which can be raised by a company through SEIS is £150,000 and this is an overall total not an annual limit.
  • Subject to conditions, the disposal of SEIS shares will be exempt from CGT.
  • Where an individual makes a capital gain in 2012/13 and invests an amount which is at least equal to the gain in qualifying SEIS shares before 6 April 2013 then the gain will be exempt from CGT. If the shares fail to meet the qualifications for SEIS for three years then the exemption will be withdrawn.

If you are interested in this new relief and wonder if it may be relevant to you or your business please do get in touch.

Internet link: Treasury SEIS

Statutory Residence Test

The government has been consulting on introducing a Statutory Residence Test (SRT). The test which was expected to be introduced from 2012 has been delayed until 6 April 2013. More details are expected to be announced in the 2012 Budget.

There is currently no definition of ‘residence’ in UK tax law and yet the liability to income tax and capital gains tax (CGT) rests on knowing an individual’s UK residence status for a tax year. Currently the determination of residence is based on old case law and, as a recent Supreme Court decision has shown, it can lead to significant uncertainty and large tax liabilities.

The SRT is expected to be based on three parts and an individual would consider each part in turn. If a definite answer on their residence status is found on the first part then there is no need to proceed further. Similarly if the second part gives a definitive answer there is no need to move to the third part. That final test then provides a definitive answer.

The parts and the conditions are as follows:

Part A – satisfy any one of three conditions and the individual is conclusively non-resident in the year.

Part B – satisfy any one of three conditions and the individual is conclusively resident for the year.

If no definite answer under Part B then proceed to Part C

Part C – here the rules combine the time spent in the UK and a number of connection factors which are deemed to link an individual to the UK.

Some individuals who are currently outside the UK, particularly those working abroad, will need to note that the new rules could change their residence status and they may wish to review plans for visits back to the UK and the impact of any potential connecting factors.

Please contact us if you have any concerns in this area.

Internet link: Treasury consultation on residence

Self assessment deadline fast approaching

HMRC are reminding taxpayers that the deadline for filing self assessment tax returns is fast approaching. According to their website:

‘You must send your online tax return by midnight on Tuesday 31 January 2012.

The deadline is only later than this if you received your tax return, or the letter telling you to complete a tax return, after 31 October 2011. In this case you’ll have three months from the date you received that letter.

If your online tax return is late, you’ll have to pay a penalty. This applies even if you have no tax to pay or if you pay all the tax you owe on time.’

The following illustrates that missing the deadline and failing to submit the return online may result in significant penalties.

What happens if you miss the deadline?

If you miss the 31 January deadline for online tax returns, you will have to pay a penalty.

The penalty is £100. You’ll still have to pay this even if

  • your return is just a day late
  • you have no tax to pay
  • you pay all the tax you owe before 31 January 2012.

The longer you delay, the more you’ll have to pay. If your tax return is three months late, you’ll have to pay a penalty for each additional day it is late. If it’s six months late, you’ll have to pay a further penalty and another final penalty if it’s 12 months late. Together these could add up to a penalty of £1,600 or more.

Don’t send a paper tax return now – the deadline was 31 October 2011. You’ll have to pay a £100 penalty straight away if you do and the daily penalties above will start even earlier. Send it online instead.’

If you require any help with your tax return please do get in touch.

Internet link: HMRC news

The Portas Review

The CBI commented on a report by Mary Portas on the future of the high street.

Dr Neil Bentley, CBI Deputy Director-General, said:

‘Retail represents about 10% of our economy, and the high street is a vital part of this.

The Portas Review makes some sensible suggestions about how we can inject life back into town centres, including increased use of Business Improvement Districts and relaxing planning restrictions on the high street, in particular on change of use.

More importantly, she recognises the growing burden business rates are placing on companies right across the country at a critical time.

We need to make sure the UK remains attractive to investors, as it’s their decisions that will ultimately lead to regeneration of our town centres. Any changes to the planning and business rate regimes must therefore encourage investment in the broadest sense, and not just rob Peter to pay Paul.’

Internet links: BIS press release with access to report CBI press release

HMRC to accept Faster Payments

HMRC have announced that they will now accept payments made using the Faster Payments Service. This will allow taxpayers to make faster electronic payments, typically via internet or telephone banking, enabling them to be processed on the same or next day.

HMRC advise that if you want make payments using this method you should contact your bank or building society to confirm the following:

  • the services available to you
  • whether there are any single transaction or daily limits on the amount you can pay
  • their latest cut off times for making a payment.

They are also stressing that when making a payment to HMRC it is important to ensure that you are using the correct bank account details and reference number.

Internet link: HMRC news

2012/13 Statutory Payments

HMRC have announced the following statutory payment rates which are due to take affect for 2012/13. These rates are still subject to Parliamentary approval and HMRC will confirm the rates before 1 April 2012.

Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) £135.45 per week

Ordinary Statutory Paternity Pay £135.45 per week

Additional Statutory Paternity Pay £135.45 per week

Statutory Adoption Pay (SAP) £135.45 per week

Statutory Sick Pay (SSP) £85.85 per week

Please contact us if you would like any help with payroll issues.

Internet link: HMRC statutory payment rates

Chancellors 2011 Autumn Statement 29 November 2011

On Tuesday 29th November the Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR) published its updated forecast for the UK economy. Chancellor George Osborne responded to that forecast in a statement to the House of Commons later on that day.

In the period since the Budget in March a number of consultation papers and discussion documents have been published by HMRC. Draft legislation relating to many of these areas will be published on 6 December 2011. Some of these proposals are summarised here. We will provide an update for you if significant changes are announced on 6 December.

This summary also provides a reminder of other key developments which are to take place from April 2012.

The Chancellor’s statement

The Chancellor emphasised that the OBR does not predict a recession in Britain but they have revised down their short term growth prospects for the country. He also made clear that the OBR central forecast assumes ‘the euro finds a way through the current crisis’.

General measures

The Autumn Statement sets out the actions the Government will take in two main areas:

  • protecting the economy and
  • building a stronger economy for the future.

In order to maintain economic stability and meet its fiscal rules, the Government will, for example:

set plans for public spending in 2015/16 and 2016/17 in line with the spending reductions over the Spending Review 2010 period

  • Raise the State Pension age to 67 between April 2026 and April 2028
  • set public sector pay awards at an average of 1% for each of the two years after the current pay freeze comes to an end.

The growth plans include the publication of a National Infrastructure Plan 2011. The plan sets out a pipeline of over 500 infrastructure projects including:

introducing a new approach to financing infrastructure, by obtaining £20 billion of private investment from pension funds

  • investing over £1 billion to tackle areas of congestion and improve the national road network
  • investing more than £1.4 billion in railway infrastructure and commuter links
  • investing £100 million to create up to ten ‘super-connected cities’ across the UK, with 80-100 megabits per second broadband and city-wide high-speed mobile coverage.


The proposal to raise the state pension age is expected to save around £60 billion in today’s prices between 2026/27 and 2035/36.

The aim of the National Infrastructure Plan is to kick start the economy by accelerating infrastructure projects with a view to job retention/creation. Time will tell how successful the new strategy is.


Credit easing

In order to free up lending to business, the Government is launching a package of measures worth up to £21 billion to ease the flow of credit to businesses. This includes up to £20 billion for the National Loan Guarantee Scheme and £1 billion for the Business Finance Partnership.


The hope is that credit easing will encourage bank lending and enhance the demand for credit by reducing the price of loans for eligible businesses.

Small business rate relief holiday

The Government will extend the current small business rate relief holiday for a further six months from 1 October 2012 and also give businesses the opportunity to defer 60% of the increase in their 2012/13 business rate bills.

Employment regulations

In an attempt to make it easier to ‘hire and fire’, the Government intends to:

  • look for ways to provide a quicker and cheaper alternative to a tribunal hearing in simple cases by introducing a ‘Rapid Resolution’ scheme
  • complete a call for evidence on the impact of reducing the collective redundancy process for redundancies of 100 or more staff from the current 90 days to 60, 45 or 30 days.

The Government will begin a call for evidence on two proposals for reform of UK employment law. They will:

  • seek views on the introduction of compensated no-fault dismissal for micro-businesses with fewer than 10 employees
  • look at how it could move to a simpler, quicker and clearer dismissal process, potentially including working with ACAS to make changes to their code or by introducing supplementary guidance for small businesses.

Youth Contract

A number of measures under the heading of a ‘Youth Contract’ will be introduced, including Government funding of:

wage incentives for 160,000 young people to make it easier for private sector employers to take them on

  • at least 40,000 incentive payments for small firms to take on young apprentices.

Planning reform

The Government has announced a series of changes to the planning regime. Changes will include:

  • introducing a 13-week maximum timescale for the majority of non-planning consents
  • building more flexibility into the new major infrastructure planning process, particularly in the pre-application phase
  • reviewing the planning appeals procedures to make them faster and more transparent
  • consulting on proposals to allow existing agricultural buildings to be used for other business purposes such as offices, leisure and retail space.


These changes are designed to speed up building projects. ‘Red tape’ has been cited as a major reason for UK infrastructure development being more expensive than in other European countries.


In an attempt to increase house building, stabilise the housing market and enable more people to own their own home, the Government will:

  • introduce a new build indemnity scheme under which home buyers will be able to purchase new build houses and flats with a 5% deposit, with house builders and the Government helping to provide security for the loan
  • reinvigorate the ‘Right to Buy’ to help social tenants buy their home
  • launch a new £400m ‘Get Britain Building’ investment fund, which will support firms in need of development finance
  • support new development, which could include modern garden cities and urban and village extensions.


The personal allowance for 2012/13

For those aged under 65 the personal allowance will be increased by £630 to £8,105. This increase is greater than the minimum required and is part of the plan of the Coalition Government to ultimately raise the allowance to £10,000.

The personal allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 of adjusted net income over £100,000. Next year the allowance ceases at adjusted net income in excess of £116,210.


Planning should be considered where adjusted net income is expected to exceed £100,000. This figure is calculated after giving a deduction against income for pension contributions and gift aid payments. Consider whether these could be made to protect some or all of the personal allowance.


Tax band and rates 2012/13

The basic rate of tax is currently 20%. The band of income taxable at this rate is being reduced to £34,370 so that the threshold at which the 40% band applies will remain at £42,475.

The 50% band currently applies where taxable income exceeds £150,000.

If dividend income is part of total income this is taxed at 10% where it falls within the basic rate band, 32.5% where liable at the higher rate of tax and 42.5% where liable to the additional rate of tax.

Tax credits

The child element of Child Tax Credit will rise by £135 per year in 2012/13 which is in line with the inflation increase but the additional increase above inflation of £110 which was planned has been dropped.

The disability elements of tax credits will be uprated by the increase in the Consumer Price Index of 5.2% but there is to be no uprating of the couple and lone parent elements of Working Tax Credit.

 Integration of the operation of income tax and NIC

Following an invitation for people to express views on a proposed integration of the operation of income tax and NIC the Government has decided to continue with the review. The Government will establish a number of working groups with stakeholders to explore options for integration. Depending on the results of the working groups, further rounds of consultation will proceed after Budget 2012. It is unlikely that there will be any substantive change in reality before 2017.

Junior ISAs

Provisions to allow these accounts were introduced this tax year. At present there is not a wide availability of these accounts although some building societies have launched products. The key features of the accounts are:

  • the accounts are available to any child who does not qualify for a Child Trust Fund
  • all returns will be tax free
  • funds placed in the account will be owned by the child and would be locked in until the child reaches adulthood although they can manage the account from the age of 16 years
  • investments will be available in cash or stocks and shares
  • annual contributions will be capped at £3,600
  • there will be no Government contributions into the account.


These accounts provide a way of increasing the tax free income available to a family in addition to the use of adult ISAs for the parents.

Child Trust Funds

These ceased to be available for children born on or after 1 January 2011 although existing accounts remain in place and can be added to by parents and family members. The maximum annual contribution has been increased to £3,600 to keep in line with the Junior ISA. No further Government contributions will be made to any account.

Furnished holiday lettings

From 6 April 2012 the tests which determine whether a property can qualify for treatment as a furnished holiday let will change. The number of days for which the property is available for letting increases from 140 days to 210 days and the number of days actually let increases from 70 to 105 days.

If an individual can show there was a genuine intention to meet the letting conditions but has been unable to do so they will be able to make an election to continue to treat the property as a furnished holiday let. This will protect the special tax treatment that such properties receive.

Statutory Residence Test

There is currently no definition of ‘residence’ in UK tax law and yet the liability to income tax and capital gains tax (CGT) rests on knowing an individual’s UK residence status for a tax year. Currently the determination of residence is based on old case law and, as a recent Supreme Court decision has shown, it can lead to significant uncertainty and large tax liabilities.

The Government published a consultation document in summer 2011 on the introduction of a Statutory Residence Test (SRT) which would come into effect in April 2012. The SRT is based on three parts and an individual would consider each part in turn. If a definite answer on their residence status is found on the first part then there is no need to proceed further. Similarly if the second part gives a definitive answer there is no need to move to the third part. That final test then provides a definitive answer.

The parts and the conditions are as follows:

  • Part A – satisfy any one of three conditions and the individual is conclusively non-resident in the year:
  • an individual with no UK residence in the three previous tax years spends less than 45 days in the UK
  • an individual who has been UK resident in one of the three previous tax years spends less than ten days in the UK
  • an individual goes to work abroad in a full time employment or self- employment and spends less than 90 days in the UK and has less than 20 working days in the UK.
  • If no definite answer under Part A then proceed to Part B
  • Part B – satisfy any one of three conditions and the individual is conclusively resident for the year:
  • an individual spends 183 days or more in the UK
  • an individual has their only home in the UK or if they have more than one home all are in the UK
  • an individual works full time in the UK for a continuous period of at least nine months and not more than 25% of duties are outside the UK.
  • If no definite answer under Part B then proceed to Part C
  • Part C – here the rules combine the time spent in the UK and a number of connection factors which are deemed to link an individual to the UK. Five connection factors have been identified:
  • spouse and/or minor children are resident in the UK at any time in the year
  • the individual has accessible accommodation in the UK and uses it in the year
  • the individual spends at least 40 working days in the UK
  • in either of the two previous tax years the individual spent at least 90 days in the UK
  • the individual spent more time in the UK than in any other single country in the tax year.
  • Part C then provides for a combination of factors and time which will make an individual resident in the UK.

A day will count as being in the UK if the individual is physically present in the UK at midnight unless they satisfy specific rules for those in transit through the UK.

There are a number of issues which have been raised in the consultation process on which clarification has been sought and it is hoped that these will be clarified in the draft legislation. It is intended that the new rules will apply from 6 April 2012. From that point they will supersede all existing case law and practice. However residence status for years up to 2011/12 is determined using the present rules.


The proposed rules do seem to work to give a definitive answer to the question ‘Am I resident in the UK?’ The answer may not be the one that you want but it should then be possible to identify the factors which need to change in order to achieve the desired result.

Individuals planning a move into or out of the UK after 6 April 2012 should be taking the new rules into account in their planning. They should also note that they are going to need to keep comprehensive records not just of their time in the UK but also, where relevant, their working days in the UK and the time they spend in each other country that they may visit.

Some individuals who are currently outside the UK, particularly those working abroad, will need to note that the new rules could change their residence status and they may wish to review plans for visits back to the UK and the impact of any potential connecting factors.

Changes for non-domiciled individuals

Following changes in 2008 all UK resident individuals are taxable on overseas income and gains overseas arising in the tax year. Individuals who are not domiciled in the UK or who are not ordinarily resident can make a claim to be taxed only on sums actually remitted to the UK in the year. These rules, known as the ‘remittance basis rules’ are complex but can mean a significant tax saving.

There are currently two downsides to making a remittance basis claim:

  •  the individual automatically loses their personal allowance for income tax and their annual exempt amount for CGT unless the remittances amount to almost all of the overseas income and gains arising
  • an individual who has been resident in the UK for at least seven out of the preceding nine UK tax years must pay a remittance basis charge of £30,000 in addition to the tax actually due.

Two significant changes are planned in the remittance basis rules from 6 April 2012:

  • the remittance basis charge will be increased to £50,000 where an individual has been resident in the UK for 12 out of the preceding 14 tax years
  • if an individual remits funds to invest in a UK business then that remittance will be tax free if the remittance basis is claimed (although the remittance basis charge will still be payable). A consultation paper has proposed a wide definition of business and indicates that the business vehicle can be a company or an unincorporated business. When the investment is realised it will be necessary for the individual to either reinvest the funds immediately in another qualifying venture or remove the funds from the UK within 14 days otherwise they will be treated as a remittance for that year.

Some administrative changes in the remittance basis rules will also be introduced.


Corporation tax rates

In accordance with the plans announced in March the main rate of corporation tax will fall from 26% to 25% from 1 April 2012. The small company rate is 20% and there has been no announcement of the rate for next year.

Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS)

Changes announced in the March Budget are due to come into effect on 6 April 2012. These are:

  • the maximum amount that an individual can invest in total in a tax year rises from £500,000 to £1m.
  • the maximum funds that a company can receive under EIS rises from £2m to £10m
  • the size of a company that can benefit from EIS (subject to meeting all the qualifications) is increased to £15m gross assets and fewer than 250 employees.

A number of other changes were announced in the Autumn Statement:

  • the rules which identify individuals who are deemed to be connected to the company are to be relaxed in some circumstances
  • the £1m per company limit that currently applies for Venture Capital Trusts will be removed
  • anti-avoidance rules will be introduced  to exclude companies set up for the purpose of obtaining the relief, and to exclude the purchase of shares in another company
  • investment in Feed-in-Tariffs will be excluded.

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS)

This is a new relief which will be introduced from 6 April 2012. It will provide income tax relief at 50% in respect of investment in a small company whose total assets before the investment are less than £200,000. The relief will be limited to investments of up to £150,000 in each company and a maximum of £100,000 investment for an individual. In addition an individual who makes a capital gain in 2012/13 and reinvests some or all of the gain in a SEIS company in the same year will obtain exemption from CGT for the sum invested.


This relief will encourage business angels or perhaps family members to invest in small enterprises and obtain a tax refund of half their investment. The details of the conditions which the recipient company will have to meet are not yet known.

Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)

The AIA is a capital allowance available for many businesses on most purchases of plant and machinery, long-life assets and integral features. Relief is given on the full cost up to a current maximum allowance of £100,000 for a full year. This allowance is to be reduced to £25,000 with effect from 1 April 2012 for companies and 6 April 2012 for unincorporated businesses.

Where a business has an accounting period that straddles the date of change the allowances have to be apportioned on a time basis. For example a company with an accounting period ending on 30 September 2012 will have an allowance of £62,500 (£100,000 x ½ + £25,000 x ½). However it should be noted that for expenditure incurred after the 1/6 April, the maximum allowance that can be attributed to that expenditure is a fraction of £25,000. The fraction will be the amount of the £25,000 that is included in the calculation of the overall AIA for the accounting period.


Planning the timing of purchases of significant items of plant becomes very important over the next year to ensure that the maximum available AIA can be secured.

Suppose the company with the 30 September year end wishes to buy new plant costing £35,000. If they buy it in February 2012 they will be able to claim an AIA on the full £35,000 but if they buy it in June 2012 they will only be able to claim an AIA of £12,500. They would actually then be better off if they waited until October when they would have a full £25,000 available.

Writing down allowances

Writing down allowances are to be reduced from April next year. The normal rate of 20% will be reduced to 18% and the lower rate of 10% which applies to integral features and long-life assets will reduce to 8%. It will be necessary to calculate hybrid rates where the accounting period straddles 1/6 April which will give a rate between 20% and 18% (or between 10% and 8%) for that period.

Capital allowances in Enterprise Zones

Over the past year the Government has designated a number of very specific areas as Enterprise Zones. Businesses in these areas enjoy certain reliefs, for example, a relief from business rates. The Chancellor has announced that 100% capital allowances will now be available for the Zones in the Black Country, Humber, Liverpool, North East, Sheffield, and the Tees Valley.

Compulsory pooling

The Government is considering whether to introduce a requirement that businesses should pool their expenditure on fixtures within a short period after acquisition in order to qualify for capital allowances.

Research and development expenditure (R&D)

There are currently a number of restrictions which effectively limit the scope of this relief and it is planned to remove these for expenditure incurred on or after 1 April 2012. The proposals include:

  • removing the rule limiting a company’s payable R&D credit to the amount of PAYE and NIC it pays
  • removing the £10,000 minimum expenditure condition
  • changing the rules governing the provision of relief for work done by subcontractors under the large company scheme
  • increasing the additional deduction for R&D expenditure by SMEs by a further 25% making the total deduction 225% of actual expenditure.

The Chancellor has announced a consultation next year on the introduction of an ‘above the line’ tax credit in 2013 for larger companies.

Controlled Foreign Companies (CFCs)

The CFC regime can apply to a UK company which has a subsidiary operating in a country with a low rate of corporation tax. The rules have been in place for 25 years but are seen as complex and in some cases disadvantageous to business. Some interim changes were made in 2011 but a major overhaul is planned for 2012. The aims of the new rules will be:

  • to target and impose a CFC charge on artificially diverted UK profits, so that UK activity and profits are taxed fairly
  • to exempt foreign profits where there is no artificial diversion of UK profits
  • to not tax profits arising from genuine economic activities undertaken offshore.

General Anti-avoidance Rule (GAAR)

The Government commissioned an independent report from a leading tax lawyer on whether or not it would be appropriate to introduce a GAAR into the UK tax system. This is a route that has been used in a number of other countries.

The reviewer has just presented his report to the Government and recommends that a moderate rule targeted at abusive arrangements would be beneficial to the UK tax system. Such a GAAR would apply for income tax, CGT, corporation tax and NIC. It would not apply to ‘responsible tax planning’.

It is now likely that the Government will undertake a consultation process in this matter but legislation is not likely until 2013 at the earliest.

High risk tax avoidance schemes

Certain types of tax avoidance schemes are currently subject to a disclosure regime which requires the scheme promoter to disclose details of the scheme to HMRC and for the users of the scheme to indicate their involvement on their tax return. Such schemes are usually challenged by HMRC but this procedure can take many years with Tribunal and Court hearings being required. If the scheme is blocked the scheme users have to pay the tax due but HMRC is concerned that the delay can still give them a significant cash-flow advantage.

HMRC is currently consulting on a proposal to introduce an additional charge on scheme users where the scheme fails. A user will be able to prevent this charge by paying the disputed tax to HMRC ahead of the challenge.

Tax treatment of asset-backed pension contributions

Rules are to be introduced from 29 November 2011 to limit tax relief for employers who enter into arrangements to make asset-backed contributions into their pension schemes. The new rules will ensure that the tax relief obtained more accurately reflects the actual costs to the employer.


Employer-provided cars

From 6 April 2012 the CO2 emissions bands used to work out the taxable benefit for an employee who has use of an employer-provided car will be shifted downwards by 5gm/km. This will have the effect of increasing the charge for each vehicle.

In addition, the current graduated table of employer-provided car bands will extend down to a 10% band and will apply to cars with CO2 emissions between 76 and 99gm/km. As a result ‘qualifying low emission cars’ will no longer exist as a separate category.

In summary the new rules from 6 April 2012 will be:

  • no emissions                              0%
  • 75gm/km or less                        5%
  • 99gm/km or less                      10%
  • 100gm/km                               11%
  • graduated increases of 1% per 5gm/km up to a maximum, including diesel supplement, of 35%

Real Time Information (RTI)

HMRC have produced draft legislation to introduce probably the most significant change in the PAYE system since its introduction in 1944. Under the RTI scheme, employers will electronically provide monthly information to HMRC related to wages and salaries paid to employees. Once the scheme is ‘bedded in’ employers will no longer have to complete year end returns such as the P35 and P14. The new system will also see the end of the use of the P45 when an employee leaves an employment.

Volunteer employers are to pilot the new scheme from 6 April 2012. The intention is that it will apply to employers on a phased basis from 6 April 2013 so that all employers are operating the system by October 2013.


This really is a major change but the success or otherwise of the scheme will depend on the ability of the HMRC computer system to cope. History suggests that this could be the problem.


CGT rates

The current rates of CGT are 18% to the extent that any income tax basic rate band is available and 28% thereafter. The rate for disposals qualifying for Entrepreneurs’ Relief (ER) is 10% with a lifetime limit of £10m for each individual.

No announcement has been made of the rates for next year.


The ER limit is very generous and owners of businesses should ensure that they meet all the conditions necessary to secure the relief throughout the twelve months up to the date of a disposal.

CGT annual exemption

The CGT annual exemption has been frozen at £10,600 for 2012/13.

Inheritance tax (IHT) nil rate band

The IHT nil rate band remains frozen at £325,000 until 6 April 2015.

Reduced rate of IHT for the charitable

The Government will introduce a reduced rate of IHT for an estate where a minimum level of legacy has been left by the deceased to charity. The actual legacy to charity remains exempt from IHT and it is the rate of tax on the balance of the estate that would be reduced to 36% from 40%.

The intention is that the reduced rate will apply where charitable bequests satisfy a 10% test. A comparison will be made between:

  • the total value of charitable legacies for IHT purposes and
  • the value of the net estate as reduced by:
  • any available nil rate band
  • the value of assets passing to the surviving spouse or civil partner and
  • other IHT reliefs and exemptions for example Business Property Relief.

If the first figure is at least 10% of the second then the balance of the estate will qualify for the reduced IHT rate of 36%.

The changes will apply to estates where the individual dies on or after 6 April 2012.


Because the benefit of the reduced IHT rate will be dependent on whether or not the amount of the charitable legacy is sufficient for the estate to pass the 10% test there will be a ‘cliff edge’ effect. Where the amount of the charitable legacy is close to the critical 10% point, a small difference to the amount of the legacy could have a much larger impact on the estate’s IHT liability. There are no plans to apply any taper or other mechanism to mitigate this.


VAT – Low value consignment relief (LVCR)

LVCR is an administrative simplification to reduce the costs for businesses, Royal Mail and other carriers and consumers all of whom would otherwise be involved in the collection and/or payment of small amounts of VAT on large numbers of low value packages coming into the UK from outside the EU. It is the main reason that suppliers of DVDs and CDs often use a base in the Channel Islands from which to ship their products.

The amount at which LVCR was to apply was reduced from £18 to £15 from 1 November 2011.

The Government recently announced that the relief is to be abolished from 1 April 2012 for goods imported as part of a distance selling transaction from the Channel Islands.

VAT cost sharing exemption

The Government is to introduce an EU VAT exemption for organisations that wish to share costs between themselves on a non-profit basis. The exemption can be used, amongst others, by organisations such as charities, universities and higher education colleges and housing associations wanting to make efficiency savings by working together to achieve economies of scale.

Under current UK legislation a VAT cost can arise creating a barrier to the sharing of services. The exemption once implemented would also, in certain circumstances, remove this VAT barrier.

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) holiday for first time buyers

Currently first-time buyers do not have to pay SDLT on house purchases where the cost is no more than £250,000. This relief is due to expire at midnight on 24th March 2012.

Air Passenger Duty (APD)

The Government intends to proceed with the introduction of APD to flights taken aboard business jets from 1 April 2013.

Disclaimer – for information of users

This summary is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the Autumn Statement and previous announcements. No action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this summary can be accepted by the authors or the firm.